Northern/Irish Feminist Judgments – re-imagining court decisions

May 26, 2017

Northern/Irish Feminist Judgments: Judges’ Troubles and the Gendered Politics of Identity, edited by Máiréad Enright, Julie McCandless and Aoife O’Donoghue (Oxford: Hart, 2017) (available here) is the most recent of a series of insightful studies on re-imagining court decisions from feminist perspectives.[1]    The volume includes rewrites and commentaries on 26 cases from Ireland or Northern Ireland, including:

Attorney General v. X, [1992] I.E.S.C. 1, (Supreme Court of Ireland) had decided that an attempt to prevent a 14-year old girl who was pregnant as a result of being raped, from traveling from Ireland to England in order to access abortion care was not justified.  Actual decision online.

In Northern/Irish Feminist Judgments. Ruth Fletcher rewrites the Irish Supreme Court’s landmark decision in the X case.Sheelagh McGuinness writes a commentary on it, explaining the ways in which Fletcher J. illustrates how the Eighth Amendment to the Irish Constitution (acknowledging the “right to life of the unborn… with due regard to the equal right to life of the mother…”) is an instrument of gendered harms.  McGuinness contrasts the “progressive constitutionalism” of Fletcher J.’s reasoning with the “conservative constitutionalism” of the original judgment. Fletcher J. crafts a judgment that considers the text of the Eighth Amendment, examines the evidence of the substantial difference between the contingency of unborn life and the life of the pregnant woman that sustains that life to decide, consistently with the original judgment, that X is entitled to an abortion. She tries to rise above her own partiality by putting herself in X’s shoes to explain how her pregnancy in such circumstances would impose “an impracticable burden on her rightful life.”
ONLINE:  Ruth Fletcher’s imagined decision: working paper version
Sheelagh McGuinness’s commentary: peer review version

McGee v. Attorney General,[1974] I.R. 284 (Supreme Court of Ireland), which had overturned a criminal ban on the importation of contraceptives into Ireland. Actual decision online.

Emilie Cloatre and Máiréad Enright write the commentary on Enright’s rewriting of the Irish Supreme Court’s decision in the McGee case, where Enright J. reached the same decision but for different reasons. They explore the ways that Enright J. acknowledged Mrs. McGee’s experiences in trying to access effective contraception to enable her to plan her family in ways that did not seriously risk her life.  Of particular note is the way in which Enright J. elaborated how Mrs. McGee’s right to freedom of conscience was a basis for overturning the importation ban: “There can be no clearer example, in my view, of the exercise of constitutionally protected conscience than Mrs. McGee’s deliberate breach of a provision of the criminal law that imposes a particular set of moral principles on the citizenry.”

[1] Northern/Irish Feminist Judgments-Judges’ Troubles and the Gendered Politics of Identity, ed. Máiréad Enright, Julie McCandless and Aoife O’Donoghue (Oxford: Hart, 2017) (book details).  Other insightful studies on re-imagining court decisions from feminist perspectives  include:  Rewriting Equality (2006) 18(1); R. Hunter, C.McGlynn and E. Rackley (eds.) Feminist Judgments: From Theory to Practice (Oxford: Hart, 2010); H. Douglas, F. Bartlett, T. Luker and R. Hunter (eds.), Australian Feminist Judgments: Righting and Rewriting Law (Oxford: Hart, 2015); K. Stanchi, L. Berger and B. Crawford (eds.), U.S. Feminist Judgments: Rewritten Opinions of the United States Supreme Court (Cambridge: CUP, 2016).

AFRICA: Legal Grounds III: Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts – 54 case summaries

February 14, 2017


by: Godfrey Kangaude, Onyema Afulukwe, Guy-Fleury Ntwari, et al.
Foreword by Prof. Charles G. Ngwena
PULP (Pretoria University Law Press) 2017
Download entire 228 page book online.
Online edition with links to decisions
Printable flyer with Table of Contents
Previous volumes

Reproductive and sexual rights, which are guaranteed in constitutions and in international and regional human rights treaties, have no impact if they are not recognized and enforced by national-level courts. Legal Grounds: Sexual and Reproductive Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts Volume III continues to provide much-needed information about whether and how national courts of African countries apply constitutional and human rights to protect reproductive and sexual rights. The case summaries, significance sections, and thematic highlights serve as useful resources for those seeking to further develop litigation, advocacy, and capacity- building strategies.

Like its predecessors, Legal Grounds: Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts – Volume III is a tool for organizations, individuals, and institutions of learning. The scope of this third volume has been widened beyond Commonwealth African countries to include cases from Francophone countries, while focusing more exclusively on court decisions related to reproductive and sexual health. This compelling publication contributes towards a knowledge base of court decisions that bear directly or indirectly on the exercise of reproductive and sexual health as constitutional and human rights in Africa.
228 page book onlinePrevious volumes Printable flyer with Table of Contents.

Foreword, Introduction, Acknowledgments
Children and Adolescents
—Child, Forced and Early Marriage
—Female Genital Mutilation legal-grounds/
—Sexual Abuse, Assault and Violence
—Consensual Sexual Conduct
—Student Pregnancy
—Maternal Health Care and Services
Abortion and Fetal Interests
—Wrongful Birth or Life
Adoption and Surrogacy
Gender, Sexuality, Women and Discrimination
—Disability, Sexuality and Criminal Law
—Women and Criminal Law
—Legal Recognition of Intersexuality
—Gender Identity
—Sexual Orientation
—Recognition of LGBTIQ Advocacy and Groups
—Access to Treatment
—Criminalisation of Transmission
—Forced Sterilization
—Discrimination in Employment
Francophone Africa / L’Afrique Francophone
—Adultery, Polygamy, Infanticide
Appendices – Table of Cases, Online Resources, Endnotes

Child Marriage: Legal and Socio-Cultural Aspects, by Godfrey Kangaude
Adolescent Consensual Sexual Conduct, by Godfrey Kangaude
Sexual Abuse, Assault and Violence, by Victoria Balogun
Maternal Health Care and Services, by Tinyade Kachika
Abortion and Fetal Interests, by Onyema Afulukwe
Adoption and Surrogacy, by Ronaldah Lerato Karabo Ozah
Gender, Sexuality, Women and Discrimination, by MaryFrances Lukera
Criminalisation of HIV Non-Disclosure, Exposure and Transmission, by Jacinta Nyachae
Sexual and Reproductive Rights of Women Living with HIV, by Ebenezer Durojaye
Towards Respect for Human Diversity, by Godfrey Kangaude

COUNTRIES:  Benin, Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda,  Zambia, Zimbabwe

228 page book online.  Previous volumes.
Printable flyer with Table of Contents.

El aborto en el derecho transnacional: casos y controversias

October 27, 2016

Resumen aqui


por Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman

y Bernard M. Dickens, (editores)
(México, FCE/CIDE 2016).

El debate jurídico y judicial sobre el aborto ha tenido, a lo largo del siglo XX y principios del XXI, importantes revoluciones en su abordaje teórico y práctico, que son expresión de estrategias de sectores sociales, religiosos y políticos que en ocasiones resultan contrapuestas.

Éste es un completo balance dinámico sobre las nuevas transiciones actuales y posibles y los desarrollos jurídicos más significativos a nivel transnacional en el tema del aborto, y da cuenta del nuevo desarrollo conceptual que concibe la idea de que no sólo la sanción penal, sino también la amenaza de la sanción penal, ponen en riesgo derechos fundamentales de las mujeres.

“…. Libro de gran actualidad y de avanzada … los autores tratan el tema del aborto con maestría desde las más variadas vertientes como pobreza, marginación, exclusión social, salud pública, penalización y derechos humanos….es y seguirá siendo lectura obligada para operadores jurídicos, sociólogos, economistas, políticos pero sobre todo para cualquier persona interesada en el tema.”

Olga Sánchez Cordero,  Ministra en retiro de la
Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación (México)

Introducción y Prólogo a la edición en español,  y  Índice General en línea

Tabla de Casos/Jurisprudencia en línea con enlaces a muchas de las decisiones judiciales

De venta en línea y en librerías del Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Oportunidad: Si desea escribir una reseña para alguna revista académica latinoamericana,  por favor escriba a  reprohealth . law @ utoronto . ca para solicitar una copia del libro.


Prólogo a la edición en espanol, por Víctor Abramovitch

Introducción, por Rebecca J. Cook,  Joanna N. Erdman, y Bernard M. Dickens


La constitucionalización del aborto, por Reva B. Siegel     Resúmen aqui

El aborto en Portugal. Nuevas tendencias en el constitucionalismo europeo, por Ruth Rubio Marín     Resúmen aqui      PDF en português.

Los derechos de las mujeres en las sentencias sobre aborto del Tribunal  Constitucional de Eslovaquia, por Adriana Lamačková   Resúmen aqui

El principio de proporcionalidad en el control de constitucionalidad de las normas sobre aborto, por Verónica Undurraga   Resúmen aqui   y PDF em português

Un enfoque funcionalista al derecho comparado del aborto, por Rachel Rebouché  Resúmen aqui


El giro procesal: el aborto en el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos, por Joanna N. Erdman  Resumen aqui

La lucha contra las normas informales que regulaban el aborto en la Argentina, por Paola Bergallo   Resumen aqui

El papel de la transparencia en la reforma de leyes y prácticas del aborto en África, por Charles G. Ngwena   Resumen aqui


El marco de referencia médico y el aborto medicamentoso temprano en el Reino Unido.  ¿Cómo puede un Estado ejercer control sobre la ingesta de una píldora? por Sally Sheldon   Resumen aqui

El derecho a la conciencia, por Bernard M. Dickens    Resumen aqui

El sexo, las mujeres, y el inicio de la vida humana en el constitucionalismo católico, por Julieta Lemaitre Ripoll     Resumen aqui

El aborto en el debate público brasileño. Estrategias jurídicas del embarazo anencefálico, por Luís Roberto Barroso

Nepal, hacia una igualdad transformativa. El fallo Lakshmi Dhikta, por Melissa Upreti


El tratamiento de las narrativas del sufrimiento inocente en el litigio transnacional del aborto, por Lisa M. Kelly

Narrativas sobre la personalidad jurídica del no nacido en la regulación del aborto, por Alejandro Madrazo

Significados estigmatizados del derecho penal sobre el aborto, por Rebecca J. Cook

Tabla de Casos/Jurisprudencia (en línea)

Tabla de legislación, tratados y otros instrumentos internacionales relevantes


Preventable maternal deaths: Ugandan court decisions

May 12, 2016

Many thanks to Godfrey Kangaude, LL.M. (UFS), LL.M. (UCLA), an LL.D. candidate with the University of Pretoria and Executive Director of Nyale Institute for Sexual and Reproductive Health Governance in Malawi, for composing or editing dozens of analytical summaries of African court decisions for our forthcoming volume, Legal Grounds III: Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts.  Previous volumes in the series, published in 2005 and 2010 by the Center for Reproductive Rights, are freely available in print or electronic form.  Legal Grounds online.

Several of the cases involve preventable maternal deaths. Traditionally, families and communities suffer these losses silently, unless a legal advocacy organization brings the case forward.  In Uganda, for instance, the Center for Health, Human Rights and Development (CEHURD) and others brought two maternal death cases to the Constitutional Court of Uganda as human rights violations, but the petition was dismissed without consideration in 2012 as a “political” matter.[1]  In November 2015, however, Uganda’s Supreme Court ordered Constitutional Court to hear the petition on maternal health rights violations.[2]  We still await the Constitutional Court’s  ruling on the merits of CEHURD’s petition.

Just six months earlier, a Ugandan High Court  found human rights violations and awarded damages to the family of a woman who died in obstructed labour at Nakaseke District Hospital; the only doctor who could handle this complication was on duty but could not be found.[3]  As Godfrey Kangaude  comments, “the judgment is an important signal that preventable death of women during pregnancy, labour, and childbirth is a human rights issue.”

Moreover, as Kangaude explains, “Uganda is a party to the International Covenant on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). One of the important decisions on the subject matter under CEDAW is Alyne da Silva Pimentel Teixeira v Brazil (Communication No. 17/2008 CEDAW/C/49/D/17/2008). The Committee on CEDAW (CEDAW Committee) considered the case of a woman who had died of complications of pregnancy as a result of delays in being provided with appropriate care by the health system.[4] The CEDAW Committee found violation of state obligations under Article 12 on the equal right to health, and under Article 2(c) in relation to access to justice, amongst others. It made several recommendations to address the systemic factors, which would apply to the Uganda context . . .” [5]

The CEDAW Committee recommended that the state:

“(a) Ensure women’s right to safe motherhood and affordable access for all women to adequate emergency obstetric care, in accordance with General Recommendation No. 24 (1999) on women and health;

(b) Provide adequate professional training for health workers, especially on women’s reproductive health rights, including quality medical treatment during pregnancy and delivery, as well as timely emergency obstetric care;

(c) Ensure access to effective remedies in cases where women’s reproductive health rights have been violated and provide training for the judiciary and for law enforcement personnel;

(d) Ensure that private health-care facilities comply with relevant national and international standards on reproductive health care; [and]

(e) Ensure that adequate sanctions are imposed on health professionals who violate women’s reproductive health rights.”[6]


[1] Center for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD) and 3 Others v Attorney General [2012], Constitutional Petition No. 16 of 2011 (Constitutional Court of Uganda at Kampala). Decision online. Preventable maternal deaths were dismissed as a “political” matter.  Case Summary and Analysis by Nthabiseng Lelisa and Godfrey Kangaude, with special thanks to Nthabiseng Lelisa, an LL.M. candidate in Sexual and Reproductive Rights in the Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

[2]  Center for Health, Human Rights and Development & 3 Others  v Attorney General.  [2015], Constitutional Appeal No. 01 of 2013 (Supreme Court of Uganda at Kampala) [Uganda Supreme Court orders Constitutional Court to hear a petition on maternal health rights violations.]  Decision online.  Case summary and analysis by Godfrey Kangaude. 

[3] Center for Health, Human Rights and Development & 4 Others  v Nakaseke District Local Administration [2015], Civil Suit No. 111 of 2012 (High Court of Uganda at Kampala). [Ugandan High Court finds human rights violations where a pregnant woman died of a ruptured uterus and blood loss while in labour.] Decision online. Case summary and Analysis by Godfrey Kangaude 

[4] See also: Rebecca J. Cook “Human Rights and Maternal Health: Exploring the Effectiveness of the Alyne Decision”  41.1 (Spring 2013) Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 103-123,  Original publication in EnglishRepublished in SpanishTranslation to PortugueseRepublication in Portuguese journal.

[5] CEHURD v Nakaseke (note 3 above), Case summary and Analysis by Godfrey Kangaude , page 3.

[6] Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,  Alyne da Silva Pimentel Teixeira (deceased) v Brazil, Communication No.17/2008, CEDAW/C/49/D/17/2008), Recommendations, 8.2.  CEDAW decision Sept 27, 2011

Legal Grounds: Reproductive and Sexual Rights in African Commonwealth Courts   (up to 2008) Volumes I and II can be downloaded here.  Our update will be published early in 2017.  Decisions already identified for Volume III  are online here.  New case summaries are added every month.   If you can suggest other cases, please do!   How You Can Help.

REPROHEALTHLAW Updates: Decisions, Calls, Events and Scholarship

October 15, 2015

October 15 2015

SUBSCRIBE TO REPROHEALTHLAW:  To receive these updates monthly by email, enter your address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.


SPAIN  [Case of Tania and Veronica, Social Court 18, Madrid, October 2015]  Court rules that same-sex couple were unjustly denied artificial insemination.  Damages awarded from hospital  for denying treatment and the Local Health Authority for discrimination.  Judgment sets a precedent affirming that the hospital and the Local Authority should have applied the higher standing regulation as opposed to a lesser standing administrative decision from Spanish Ministry of Health which excludes assisted reproductive treatments in the public health system for all women without a male partner.  English press release from Women’s Link Worldwide   Details from Women’s Link Worldwide.   Spanish news report.

KENYA:    Lucy Nyambura & Another v Town Clerk, Municipal Council of Mombasa & 2 Others [2011] eKLR, Petition No. 286 of 2009 (High Court of Kenya).  Decision online.  Case summary/analysis by Godfrey Kangaude and Winnet Shamuyarira.  [Conviction for loitering for purposes of prostitution held constitutional.]

Republic v Jackson Namunya Tali [2014] eKLR, High Court Criminal Case No. 75 of 2009 (High Court of Kenya at Nairobi). Decision online.   Case summary/ analysis by Godfrey Kangaude and Annagrace Rwehumbiza.   [Kenyan High Court convicts nurse of murder over abortion related death. ]

NAMIBIA:    LM and Others v. Government of the Republic of Namibia, [2012] NAHC 211 (High Court of Namibia) Decision online.  Brief abstract by Andy Sprung.   New: Case summary/analysis by Godfrey Kangaude and Phillipa Tucker.    [Court found forced sterilization of women without informed consent; unproven link to HIV-positive status]

Government of the Republic of Namibia v L.M. & 2 Others [2014] NASC 19 (Supreme Court of Namibia). Decision onlineCase summary/analysis by Godfrey Kangaude and Philippa Tucker.  [Supreme Court links forced sterilisation to infringement of constitutional rights]

ZIMBABWE:   Mildred Mapingure v Minister Of Home Affairs and 2 Others [2014], Judgment No. SC 22/14, Civil Appeal No. SC 406/12 (Supreme Court of Zimbabwe). Decision online. Brief abstract by Michelle Hayman.   New:  Case summary/analysis by Godfrey Kangaude and Rudo Chigudu.   [State held liable for hindering access to emergency contraception, but not abortion]

The five case analyses mentioned above have been prepared for a new book,  Legal Grounds III:  Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts, forthcoming 2016.  Decisions,  case summaries and previous volumes.    How you can help.


[HIV stigma in health care] UNAIDS seeks input from individuals and organizations who use tools to assess and/or address HIV-related stigma and discrimination in health care settings.    Inquiries? Contact: Program on Global Health and Human Rights, University of Southern California {uschealthhumanrights [at} gmail {dot] com.   Respond to online questionnaire by October 23, 2015 in  English    Spanish   Russian  Arabic.


“What’s the Harm?: Understanding Reproductive Injustice” full day symposium at New York University School of Law on Friday, October 30, 2015 at 9:00am.  Symposium details;  Registration required.

El IV Congreso Latinoamericano Jurídico sobre Derechos Reproductivos Lima, Peru, November 2-4, 2015   Latin American Legal Congress.


Abortion is still illegal in the UK, thanks to this Victorian law ” by Sally Sheldon, The Conversation, Oct 6, 2015.  Article online.

Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective:  Cases and Controversies, ed. Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman and Bernard M. Dickens, 16 chapters.  University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014, 482 pages. Introduction by the editors. Table of Cases online  Table of ContentsPurchase from U Penn Press. A Spanish edition was published in August, 2016.  Ahora disponible en español.

“Conscientious Objection, Harm Reduction and Abortion Care,” by Ruth Fletcher , in Mary Donnelly and Claire Murray eds., Ethical, Legal and Policy Debates in Irish Healthcare: Confronting Complexities (Manchester University Press, 2015,  Abstract and chapter online.  Book forthcoming 2015

“Human-rights-based approaches to health in Latin America,” by Alicia Ely Yamin, Ariel Frisancho,  The Lancet, 385(9975), e26-e29, 4 April 2015   Abstract and article online.

Rwanda:  When Abortion is a Crime  (Ipas, Sept 2015) [research study based on case summaries and interviews with prisoners  28-page report

United Nations: Draft General Comment 36 on Article 6: Right to Life  now available for consideration by UN Human Rights Committee. CCPR/C/GC/R.36/Rev.2  Draft online.

Worldwide Abortion Policies, updated Oct 5, 2015.  Pew Research Center report.   “How abortion is regulated around the world”.


[Brazil – abortion]  “Sexual Politics in Brazil:  wider frontline to cope with.” by  Sonia Corrêa and Fábio Grotz *  Article online  [re current  bill to legalize abortion]

Rwanda:  “Government Moves to Ease Process of Seeking Legal Abortion”  by Rodrigue Rwirahira And Michel Nkurunziza.  Article online.

US-focused news, resources, and legal developments are available on Repro Rights Prof Blog. View or subscribe.


Links to employers in the field of Reproductive and Sexual Health Law are online here

Compiled by the Coordinator of the International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program, reprohealth*law at For Program publications and resources, see our website, online here. TO JOIN THIS BLOG: enter your email address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.

“The Struggle against Informal Rules on Abortion in Argentina” by Paola Bergallo

September 3, 2015

Paola Bergallo,  “The Struggle against Informal Rules on Abortion in Argentina,” Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective: Cases and Controversies, ed. Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman and Bernard M. Dickens (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014), pp. 143-165, notes 415-419. A Spanish edition was published in August, 2016.  Ahora disponible en español.

In this seventh chapter of Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective, Paola Bergallo explores the procedural turn in Argentina through a contest between formal law and informal norms in access to abortion. She recounts how the legal grounds permitting abortions in case of rape and risk for the life or the health of a woman have been continually undermined through the use of informal norms by conservative groups, leading to a de facto total prohibition of the practice. Since 2005, she argues, several initiatives put forward by women’s organizations, the issuance of health regulatory guidelines, and court decisions mandating the supply of legal abortions, have helped to destabilize the total prohibition of the practice reinstating the formal law allowing abortions in the cases mentioned above. Lastly, the chapter explores how the struggle to implement the legal indications for abortion has helped to promote a gradual change in conceptions of the rule of law, revealing a fertile terrain for moving toward decriminalization through the use of the unworkability argument, i.e., that guidelines have not solved the unworkability of regulating abortion through legal grounds.  The chapter concludes that the procedural turn in Argentina may ultimately show its greatest potential in reinforcing the normative claims for decriminalization.

Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective: Cases and Controversies was published in August 2014 by the University of Pennsylvania Press’s Studies in Human Rights Series.   Table of Contents and other information online. A Spanish edition was published in August, 2016.  Ahora disponible en español.


Human Rights and African Abortion Laws: A Handbook for Judges

July 30, 2015

Congratulations to Prof. Charles Ngwena and the Ipas Africa Alliance upon the publication of this concise guide, Human Rights and African Abortion Laws which judges can use to interpret and apply domestic abortion laws, taking into account global and regional human rights standards.   The Table of Contents, reproduced below, provides a more detailed overview of this useful resource:


by Prof. Charles Ngwena  (Nairobi, Kenya:  Ipas Africa Alliance, 2014) 85 pages, online hereDirect link to PDF

1.1      Introduction
1.2      Purpose of the handbook
1.3      Role of the courts
1.4      Women’s rights in the age of constitutionalism and human rights
1.5      Structure of the handbook

2.1     Introduction
2.2    Scale and health consequences of unsafe abortion
2.3   Costs of unsafe abortion

3.1 Historical development
3.2 Abortion law in European colonies in Africa (non- British colonies)
3.3 Abortion law in British colonies in Africa
3.4 Section 58 of the Offences Against the Person Act of 1861 and the Bourne case
3.5 The significance of the Bourne case

4.1    Introduction
4.2    Sources of abortion law
4.3    Overview of current abortion laws
4.4    Abortion and the constitution
——–4.4.1    Uganda and Zimbabwe
——–4.4.2    Swaziland and Kenya
4.5  Untested abortion laws
4.6  Linking abortion laws with unsafe abortion
4.7  Abortions laws as barriers

5.1  Introduction
5.2  Global developments
——–5.2.1    Global consensus statements
5.2.2    Treaty-monitoring bodies and special rapporteurs of the United Nations
5.2.3    Decisions of treaty monitoring bodies under optional protocols
5.2.4    World Health Organization: Technical and policy Guidance
5.3  Regional developments
——–5.3.1    African regional developments
5.3.2    Human rights developments in the European and the Inter-American regions 

6.1    Introduction
6.2    Interpreting the life ground
6.3    Interpreting the health ground
6.4    Foetal rights
6.5    Criminalisation of abortion
6.6    Spousal consent requirements
6.7    Parental consent requirements
6.8    Conscientious objection by auxiliary workers
6.9    Conscientious objection by judges

7.1    Introduction
7.2    Case study 1: Abortion law reform with human rights principles
——–7.2.1 Introduction
7.3 Case study 2: A challenge to a restrictive abortion law
——–7.3.1    Introduction        


Human Rights and African Abortion Laws: A Handbook for Judges (85 pages): is online hereDirect link to PDF.