Nepal: hacia una igualdad transformativa. El fallo Lakshmi Dhikta

November 30, 2017
 [Toward Transformative Equality in Nepal: The Lakshmi Dhikta Decision]

Melissa Upreti, “Nepal: hacia una igualdad transformativa. El fallo Lakshmi Dhikta,” El aborto en el derecho transnacional: Casos y controversias, editoras/es  Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman, y Bernard M. Dickens (FCE/CIDE, 2016) págs. 354-380. Disponible: en españolen inglés.

 

En 2009, la Corte Suprema de Nepal dictó un fallo monumental en el caso  Lakshmi Dhikta c. Nepal, donde reconoció que el aborto es un derecho fundamental protegido por la Constitución.   En este capitulo de El aborto en el derecho transnacional: Casos y controversias, Melissa Upreti aborda los cambiantes marcos de referencia a través de los cuales un tribunal constitucional analiza el aborto. La autora examina la sentencia de la Corte Suprema de Nepal en el caso Lakshmi Dhikta, que abordó los derechos de una mujer pobre del occidente de Nepal para que el gobierno cubriera los gastos de su aborto. Con objeto de establecer un amplio marco normativo del aborto, se consideró que la estrategia procesal idónea era fundamentar el litigio por motivos de interés público, lo que permitiría lograr un dictamen o una directiva de la corte para promulgar una ley amplia sobre el aborto que se pudiera utilizar para superar estos obstáculos.  La sentencia de la corte reforzó la transición del país desde la represión punitiva del aborto, basada en los preceptos del patriarcado y el alto valor que se le asigna a la fertilidad de la mujer en la religión hindú, a garantizar el acceso económico a servicios de aborto legal y seguro para las mujeres pobres. Upreti explica cómo la corte, guiada por un marco de igualdad transformativa, exigió que el gobierno garantice que las mujeres marginadas por la pobreza y el aislamiento geográfico tengan acceso oportuno a servicios gratuitos.

El fallo Lakshmi Dhikta refleja un cambio drástico fundado en una visión de igualdad transformativa: ya no se considera el aborto como un delito punible, sino como una elección reproductiva y de justicia. El fallo destaca que el aborto es un tema de elección personal, en el cual la mujer es quien controla su propio cuerpo y es a ella a quien le compete la decisión última sobre la procreación. La Corte ordenó al gobierno que eliminara los múltiples obstáculos que deben enfrentar las mujeres que desean acceder a un servicio de aborto seguro y que garantizara a todas las mujeres el acceso a servicios de aborto, en especial a las que son marginadas por su estatus socioeconómico o porque viven en medios rurales. Al analizar la relación entre la mujer y el embarazo, el fallo repudia los estereotipos tradicionales que restringen a la mujer a un papel de portadora de hijos y madre entregada al autosacrificio, enfoque que se empleó durante siglos con el fin de perpetuar el estatus subordinado de la mujer. La corte estableció que, para la mujer, el embarazo no puede ser una obligación, sino, por el contrario, un acto noble que cada una debe elegir libremente.

El aborto en el derecho transnacional: casos y controversias
es disponible en español    y en inglés.
Descargar: Reseña del libro en Andamios, por Diego Garcia Ricci
Introducción y Prólogo. 

Tabla de Casos/Jurisprudencia en línea con enlaces a muchas de las decisiones judiciales

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El aborto en el debate público brasileño. Estrategias jurídicas para el embarazo anencefálico

November 30, 2017
 [Bringing Abortion into the Brazilian Public Debate: Legal Strategies for Anencephalic Pregnancy]

 Luís Roberto Barroso, “El aborto en el debate público brasileño. Estrategias jurídicas para el embarazo anencefálico,” El aborto en el derecho transnacional: Casos y controversias, editoras/es  Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman, y Bernard M. Dickens (FCE/CIDE, 2016) págs. 332-353.
Ahora disponible: en españolen inglés.

En este decimo segundo capitulo de El aborto en el derecho transnacional: Casos y controversias (FCE/CIDE, 2016), Luís Roberto Barroso explica la argumentación jurídica y los cambios en la percepcion social que produjo el caso ADPF 54 del Supremo  Tribunal  Federal  de  Brasil, iniciado en 2004 y con sentencia de 2012.  Barroso  relata  su  accionar  ante  este  Supremo  Tribunal  mediante argumentos exitosos en cuanto a que la interrupción del embarazo anencefálico (una deficiencia del tejido cerebral en el feto que hace imposible su supervivencia fuera del útero) no debe considerarse un aborto. Así, el autor explica cómo este caso extremo otorgó la oportunidad de superar la demanda moral más crucial en contra del aborto: la potencialidad vital del feto. En este sentido, compara y contrasta las sentencias del Supremo Tribunal brasileño con las sentencias judiciales de otros países y de aquellos organismos de derechos humanos creados por medio de tratados.

El aborto en el derecho transnacional: casos y controversias es disponible en español    y en inglés.
Descargar: Reseña del libro en Andamios, por Diego Garcia Ricci      
Introducción y Prólogo. 

Tabla de Casos/Jurisprudencia en línea con enlaces a muchas de las decisiones judiciales

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Únete a este blog aquí.
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Africa (Nigeria): ECOWAS Court challenges vagrancy laws that target women

November 30, 2017

Many thanks to Benson Chakaya, an M.Phil candidate in the LL.M./M.Phil (Sexual & Reproductive Rights in Africa) degree program at the Center for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria.  He also serves as National Coordinator for Right Here Right Now Kenya ​hosted by the ​Network for Adolescents and Youth of Africa.  We thank him for abstracting and commenting on the significance of this case:

Dorothy Njemanze & 3 Ors V Federal Republic of Nigeria, Suit No.: ECW/CCJ/APP/17/14  (ECOWAS Court, Abuja, Nigeria)  Decision of October 12, 2017.

Many countries in Africa have criminal law targeting sex workers, often accompanied by administrative law in many cases municipal bylaws against vagrancy that facilitate arbitrary arrests of women at night. Suspected sex workers (in many cases women) are rounded up by law enforcers and charged with non-criminal offenses such as loitering, vagrancy, congregating for the purposes of prostitution, public indecency, or disorderly behavior.  The recent ruling by Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Court of Justice in the case of Dorothy Njemanze & 3 Ors v. Federal Republic of Nigeria,[1] is significant as it successfully mounts a challenge to vagrancy laws.

On different occasions, Dorothy Njemanze and three other women were abducted, assaulted sexually, physically and verbally, and unlawfully detained by Nigerian law enforcement officers.  They were arrested and accused of being prostitutes on the grounds that they had been found on the streets at night.  The four women, led by Njemanze, a Nollywood actress, filed a case at the West African Regional Court which centered on the violent, cruel, inhuman, degrading and discriminatory treatment the women suffered at the hands of law enforcement agents in Abuja, Nigeria.

The Njemanze case bears some similarities to the Kenyan High Court case of Lucy Nyambura & Another v. Town Clerk, Municipal Council of Mombasa & 2 Others (2011)[2] in that the petitioners in the Kenyan case were also arrested and charged with the offence of “loitering in a public place for immoral purposes,” simply because they were found on the streets at night. The charges essentially criminalize any woman who ventures outdoors after dark. However, in the Kenyan case, the High Court failed to find the action of law enforcers as discriminatory and a violation of the petitioners’ rights.

By contrast, the ECOWAS Court found the arrest of the four petitioners to be unlawful and violated their rights to dignity and liberty, and their right to be free from cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. The Court affirmed the provisions of the United Nations’ Convention on Elimination All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), when it found that the action of Nigerian law enforcement officers constituted gender-based discrimination. The Court determined from the submissions showing that the operation was systematically directed against only the female gender an indication and evidence of discrimination.   The finding is significant for women because it reiterates State Parties’ obligation and responsibility as codified in CEDAW to adopt laws, administrative and policy measures to prevent gender based discrimination.

According to the Court, “Prostitution is claimed to be a crime in the laws of the Defendant. However, it takes two persons to engage in such criminal activity. There is no law that suggest[s] that when women are seen on the streets at midnight or anytime thereafter, they are necessarily idle persons or prostitutes.  If it were so, it ought to apply to all persons irrespective of sex”.  In this quote, a blow to the discriminatory application of prostitution and vagrancy laws, the Court rejects the narrative, fostering gender inequality, that female commercial sex workers are directly criminally liable, while their male counterparts, if liable at all, can only be so indirectly as accomplices or conspirators. This narrative has often reinforced harmful social prejudices against women.

The judgment also affects commercial sex workers, especially those who work at night. Although the Court did not make a pronouncement on the legality or illegality of commercial sex work, it is significant that it found no crime in women being on the street at night, whether they are sex workers or not.  The Court found the arrest a violation of the Plaintiffs’ right to liberty or free movement which is a fundamental human right.  The Court denounced the gender stereotyping of women found on the street at night as prostitutes and declared that such verbal abuses violated the right of these women to dignity. This denunciation unfortunately perpetuates the stigma that has traditionally been directed against sex workers.

In this context, the Court did not issue a direct order regarding existing laws prohibiting prostitution.  In finding that the Defendant failed to provide sufficient evidence linking the Plaintiffs with prostitution, the Court exposes the difficulty of collecting evidence for the crime of prostitution.  This suggests an opportunity to challenge the law on prostitution in the fact that the law violates the right to privacy.  Given the intimate nature of sex, privacy is a major issue in criminalizing sex work.  Collecting evidence to support sex-work-related charges often involves bedroom snooping and interfering with the privacy of the sex workers and their clients.

A significant milestone that sets the ECOWAS ruling apart is the pronouncement of a violation of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol), is indeed a first in an International Court. The Court found that there were multiple violations of article 2 calling on States to combat all forms of discrimination against women, article 3 that provides for the right to dignity and to the recognition and protection of women human and legal rights. There was further violation of article 4 on the Rights to Life, integrity and security of the person, article 5(d) on protection of women from being subjected violence, abuse and intolerance. The denial of access to justice and equal protection before the law and access to remedy was a violation of articles 8 and 25 respectively.

This ruling by the ECOWAS Court is important to judges, lawyers and law scholars as it sets the pace for challenging the often vague vagrancy laws.  By finding the action of the law enforcement officers to have violated fundamental human rights, the Court in other words has questioned the legality of vagrancy laws.  The ruling by ECOWAS Court, therefore, piles more pressure on African States to repeal the overly vague and overbroad vagrancy laws that harass and abuse women, including female sex workers. Already, the CEDAW Committee has called upon States Parties to take appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress exploitation of women in sex work.   Overall, the ECOWAS Court’s ruling is a clear call to these States to respect fundamental rights of women to liberty, dignity and self-determination.

[1] Dorothy Njemanze & 3 Ors V Federal Republic of Nigeria: SUIT NO: ECW/CCJ/APP/17/14  (ECOWAS Court, Abuja, Nigeria)  Decision of October 12, 2017.

[2] Lucy Nyambura & Another v. Town Clerk, Municipal Council of Mombasa & 2 Others [2011] eKLR, Petition No. 286 of 2009 Kenya, High Court. Decision online.
Case summary and analysis for Legal Grounds III

Other African cases, summarized online: 
Legal Grounds III: Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts  (Pretoria, Pretoria University Law Press (PULP), 2017), and previous volumes.
Printed edition of Legal Grounds III available from PULP.
Previous volumes PDF online at CRR.
Legal Grounds III, online edition with updates and links to decisions.


Compiled by the Coordinator of the International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program, reprohealth*law at utoronto.ca For Program publications and resources, see our website, online here. TO JOIN THIS BLOG: enter your email address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.


Mandatory Waiting Periods and Biased Abortion Counseling in Central and Eastern Europe

November 30, 2017

Congratulations to Leah Hoctor and Adriana Lamačková of the Centre for Reproductive Rights, whose article has just been published in the Ethical and Legal Issues section of the International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics.  The article addresses the recent retrogressive introduction of mandatory waiting periods and biased counseling and information requirements prior to abortion in Central and Eastern Europe.

Leah Hoctor and Adriana Lamačková,  Mandatory Waiting Periods and Biased Abortion Counseling in Central and Eastern Europe (2017). International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 139 (Nov. 2017): 253–258. 
PDF at Wiley Online Library.    Submitted text online at SSRN.

A number of Central and Eastern European countries have recently enacted retrogressive laws and policies introducing new pre-conditions that women must fulfill before they can obtain legal abortion services. Mandatory waiting periods and biased counseling and information requirements are particularly common examples of these new prerequisites. This article considers these requirements in light of international human rights standards and public health guidelines, and outlines the manner in which, by imposing regressive barriers on women’s access to legal abortion services, these new laws and policies undermine women’s health and well-being, fail to respect women’s human rights, and reinforce harmful gender stereotypes and abortion stigma.

Key words: Abortion; Abortion counseling; Central and Eastern Europe; Discrimination; Human rights; Informed consent; Waiting periods

The published article is online in PDF at Wiley Library.
Full text, as submitted, is online at SSRN.
Ethical and Legal Issues in Reproductive Health: 80 other concise articles.


Compiled by the Coordinator of the International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program, reprohealth*law at utoronto.ca For Program publications and resources, see our website, online here. TO JOIN THIS BLOG: enter your email address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.


REPROHEALTHLAW Updates — Oct 2017

October 31, 2017

SUBSCRIBE TO REPROHEALTHLAW: To receive these updates monthly by email, enter your address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.

DEVELOPMENTS

[Brazil, religious education] STF Conclui Julgamento Sobre Ensino Religioso nas Escolas Públicas ADI No. 4439, September 27, 2017.    The Brazilian Federal Supreme Court dismissed, by a 6 to 5 majority, a Direct Action of Unconstitutionality in which the Public Prosecutor’s Office questioned the model of religious education in the country’s public school system.  In Portuguese: Initial questionConclusion of Decision
English: Comment on I-CONnect Blog.

[Europe: Italy, conscientious objectors] Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro (CGIL) v. Italy (2016), Complaint No. 91/2013 (European Committee on Social Rights, Strasbourg, France)  Decision in English. 
-which builds upon this 2014 decision:  International Planned Parenthood European Network v. Italy (2014), Complaint No. 87/2012, 10 March 2014 (European Committee on Social Rights, Strasbourg, France) Decision in EnglishBoth decisions summarized by Tania Pagotto.

[Kenya] – Court of Appeal acquitted Jackson Tali, a registered nurse sentenced to death on murder charges re pregnancy complications.   October 19, 2017.   Press release by the Center for Reproductive Rights  Overturns:  Republic v Jackson Namunya Tali [2014] eKLR, High Court Criminal Case No. 75 of 2009 (High Court of Kenya at Nairobi).  Overturned decision.  Overturned decision summarized in Legal Grounds III by Godfrey Kangaude and Annagrace Rwehumbiza.

[Spain, conscientious objectors] Zurich Insurance PLC, Sucursal en España v. Doña Encarnacion y don César y Servicio Galego de Saude, Sentencia 00392/2017, Apelación 43/17 (High Court of Galicia at Coruña, Spain)   Decision in SpanishEnglish summary by lawyer F. F. Guillen.

[West Africa: Nigerian police abuse women] Suit no ECW/CCJ/APP/17/14. October 13, 2017, Community Court of Justice, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) awarded 18 million naira as compensation to an actress Dorothy Chioma Njemanze and two other women for the violation of their human rights to dignity following the physical, sexual and psychological violence inflicted on them by agents of the Nigerian State.  Press release from ECOWAS Court.    Newspaper reportComment by Benson Chakaya

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY:
Africa – Doctoral Scholarships:   LL.D/D.Phil in Sexual and Reproductive Rights in Africa:
The Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria, calls for applications for full-time doctoral scholarships in the field of sexual and/or reproductive rights and their intersection with culture or criminalisation in the African region.  Apply by 15 Nov 2017 Scholarship details

SCHOLARSHIP:
Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective: Cases and Controversies, ed. Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman and Bernard M. Dickens (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014), now also in Spanish (see next entry) and in paperback, 20% discount code PH70.  English edition from U Penn PressTable of Contents with chapter summaries. 
Abortion Decisions Online, based on the book’s Table of Cases

El aborto en el derecho transnacional: casos y controversias,  ed. Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman y Bernard M. Dickens (Mexico: FCE/CIDE, 2016)   En espanol, 2016: Fondo de Cultura Económica Libreria CIDE.     Índice con resúmenes de capítulos 1-11
Tabla de Casos/Jurisprudencia sobre aborto en línea con enlaces a muchas de las decisiones judiciales

[abortion] “How Laws Fail the Promise of Medical Abortion: A Global Look,” by Patty Skuster, Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law  18.379, 2017. Abstract and Article.

[abortion] “The Politics of Global Abortion Rights,”  by Joanna N. Erdman,  Brown Journal of World Affairs 22.2 (2016): 39-57.   Article online

[abortion, Central and Eastern Europe]  “Mandatory Waiting Periods and Biased Abortion Counseling in Central and Eastern Europe,” by Leah Hoctor and Adriana Lamačková, International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 139 (Nov. 2017): 253–258.    PDF at Wiley Online Library.    Submitted text online at SSRN.

“Abortion Travel and the Limits of Choice,” by Lisa Kelly, 12 FIU L. Rev. 27 (2016).
Article online.

[Africa] “Conscientious Objection to Abortion and Accommodating Women’s Reproductive Health Rights: Reflections on a Decision of the Constitutional Court of Colombia from an African Regional Human Rights Perspective,” by Charles G. Ngwena, Journal of African Law, 58 (2014): 183-209  Article now online.

[Africa]  Legal Grounds III, Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts (2017)   Entire book, 228-pages, online here.
Print copies available for courses, conferences or organizations.

Legal Grounds III Online now includes searchable links to entire book, individual case summaries and decisions, plus more recent cases.

[Zika, Brasil and Human Rights Obligations]: now in Spanish, Portuguese and English:
—“Infección por el virus de Zika en Brasil y obligaciones relacionadas con los derechos humanos,” por Debora Diniz, Sinara Gumieri, Beatriz Galli Bevilacqua, Rebecca J. Cook, y Bernard M. Dickens, Boletin FLASOG 5.2( June 2017): 6-12.
En espanol Boletin FLASOG, pp 6-12
Em português do Brasil, forthcoming in Revista Uni Brasilia Direito.
—“Zika Infection in Brazil and Human Rights Obligations,” by Debora Diniz, Sinara Gumieri, Beatriz Galli Bevilacqua, Rebecca J. Cook and Bernard M. Dickens, International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 136.1 (Jan. 2017) 105-110.
PDF online.   Submitted text in English at SSRN.

NEWS

International news and resources for advocacy:  International Campaign for Women’s Right to Safe Abortion.

US-focused news, resources, and legal developments are available on Repro Rights Prof Blog.  View or subscribe.

JOBS
Links to employers in the field of Reproductive and Sexual Health Law are online here

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Compiled by the Coordinator of the International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program, reprohealth*law at utoronto.ca For Program publications and resources, see our website, online here. TO JOIN THIS BLOG: enter your email address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.


Conscientious Objection: African reflections on Colombian abortion decision T-388/09, by Charles G. Ngwena

October 31, 2017

Congratulations to Charles Ngwena of the Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, South Africa, whose 2014 article in the Journal of African Law is now available online.

Charles G. Ngwena. “Conscientious Objection to Abortion and Accommodating

Women’s Reproductive Health Rights: Reflections on a Decision of the Constitutional Court of Colombia from an African Regional Human Rights Perspective. Journal of African Law, 58 (2014): 183-209  Article now online.

Abstract and Overview:  If applied in isolation from the fundamental rights of women seeking abortion services, the right to conscientious objection can render any given rights to abortion illusory, including the rights to health, life, equality and dignity that are attendant to abortion. A transformative understanding of human rights requires that the right to conscientious objection to abortion be construed in a manner that is subject to the correlative duties which are imposed on the conscientious objector, as well as the state, in order to accommodate women’s reproductive health rights. In recent years, the Colombian Constitutional Court has been giving a judicial lead on the development of a right to conscientious objection that accommodates women’s fundamental rights. This article reflects on one of the court’s decisions and draws lessons for the African region.

After reviewing the history and status of abortion restriction in Africa, and comparing approaches to conscience clauses in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, Dr. Ngwena carefully reviews the Colombian decision in Case T-388/09 which, he concludes, “is ultimately about recognizing an overlapping consensus of the imperative of mutual co-existence in a liberal and heterogeneous society. . . .   [At the] interface between the right to conscientious objection and the right to abortion, African domestic courts and institutions can do well to look, among other juridical resources, to the Colombian decision for the development of constitutional and human rights standards that are aimed at accommodating the fundamental rights of conscientious objectors with the equally fundamental rights of women seeking abortion.  African regional treaty bodies have the same need.   . . . [In] African states, judicial interpretation has a crucial role to play in the authoritative interpretation and application of human rights protections under the African Charter system.

The Colombian decision is an important juridical resource and advocacy tool for human rights practitioners, civil society and non-governmental organisations that seek to promote women’s sexual and reproductive health,including access to abortion as a human right. In Case T-388/09, the Colombian Constitutional Court adopted a judicial approach that is gender sensitive and transcended a classical liberal interpretation of rights by avoiding the trap of enunciating abortion rights in a manner which reduces them to a mere rhetorical flourish.  Application of abortion rights requires judicial awareness that rights holders will often be unable to realize the rights in the same way for the reason that they have different capabilities and are differently situated, particularly in an environment in which gender inequalities are embedded.  Thus, imposition of state duties to provide adequate information and material resources to facilitate equitable access to healthcare services becomes a more meaningful way of vindicating abortion rights as not just tangible human rights but also human capabilities.

Abortion has a long history of being at the receiving end of moral censure by patriarchal political and religious authorities. Women remain a political minority. Unless closely interrogated, the right to conscientious objection to abortion can easily come to deny the very heterogeneity it seeks to acknowledge. Instead, it can become a Trojan horse for popular patriarchal and religious prejudices that deny women’s reproductive agency and accentuate the historical marginalization and stigmatization of reproductive healthcare services which only women need. How health care professionals understand and exercise the right to conscientious objection has implications for the realization of the reproductive rights of women seeking abortion services.
Charles G. Ngwena. “Conscientious Objection to Abortion and Accommodating
Women’s Reproductive Health Rights: Reflections on a Decision of the Constitutional Court of Colombia from an African Regional Human Rights Perspective. Journal of African Law, 58 (2014): 183-209  Article now online.
Related resources:
Colombian decision T-388/09  Corte Constitucional [Constitutional Court] 2009,  Decision in Spanish

T-388/09:  Conscientious Objection and Abortion: A Global Perspective on the Colombian Experience. (Georgetown, USA, O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law / Women’s Link Worldwide, 2014)    English | Español

 “Healthcare responsibilities and Conscientious Objection” by R. J. Cook, M. Arango Olaya and B.M. Dickens,  International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 104 (2009): 249-252. Spanish translation.
The Scope and Limits of Conscientious Objection,” by B.M. Dickens and R. J. Cook (2000) 71 International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 71-77.

Conscientious Objection-
Articles and other resources from the International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program at University of Toronto, online here.
Ethical and Legal Issues in Reproductive Health80 concise articles.
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The REPROHEALTHLAW BLOG is managed by the International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program, reprohealth*law at utoronto.ca.  For Program publications and resources, see our website, online here. TO JOIN THIS BLOG: enter your email address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.

“El sexo, las mujeres y el inicio de la vida humana en el constitucionalismo católico”, por Julieta Lemaitre Ripoll

October 31, 2017
[Catholic Constitutionalism on Sex, Women and the Beginning of Life]

El aborto en el derecho transnacional: Casos y controversias fue publicado en agosto de 2016 por el Fondo de Cultura Económica y el Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas.

Julieta Lemaitre Ripoll, “El sexo, las mujeres y el inicio de la vida humana en el constitucionalismo católico,” El aborto en el derecho transnacional: Casos y controversias, editoras/es  Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman, y Bernard M. Dickens (FCE/CIDE, 2016) págs. 306-331.    en españolen inglés.

La Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre Población y Desarrollo de 1994, también conocida como Conferencia de El Cairo, provocó una vigorosa reacción de los conservadores católicos en contra de las propuestas feministas sobre la sexualidad y la reproducción. Desde entonces, los constitucionalistas católicos de todo el continente americano han manifestado su rechazo a las propuestas feministas en esos temas. Siguiendo instrucciones del Vaticano, este grupo ha luchado contra la liberalización de las leyes sobre el aborto, el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo y la investigación con células madre. Si bien algunos han citado explícitamente las escrituras bíblicas y a las autoridades religiosas, en los últimos años muchos han dejado de lado las referencias a su fe y, en cambio, utilizan argumentos jurídicos basados exclusivamente en la razón. Esta nueva estrategia de argumentación es un cambio significativo para el movimiento conservador católico, que se opone a los derechos sexuales y reproductivos.

En el decimo primer capitulo de El aborto en el derecho transnacional: Casos y controversias (FCE/CIDE, 2016), Julieta Lemaitre Ripoll explora la aparición del constitucionalismo católico en la normativa sobre el aborto. Esto es, el avance del razonamiento teológico católico en el discurso laico de los derechos humanos. Estimando que es crucial que la comunidad a favor del derecho de las mujeres a decidir considere esta línea argumentativa, Lemaitre estudia los argumentos constitucionales católicos sobre aborto y explora los efectos productivos de considerar esta línea, al exponer el orden moral implícito en las convicciones liberales y sus deficiencias, y al tender puentes hacia las preocupaciones católicas por la justicia social.

El aborto en el derecho transnacional: casos y controversias es disponible en español    en inglés   y dos capítulos en portugués: Capítulo 2.    Capítulo 4
Descargar: Reseña del libro en Andamios, por Diego Garcia Ricci      
Introducción y Prólogo.
Índice con resúmenes de otros capítulos

Tabla de Casos/Jurisprudencia en línea con enlaces a muchas de las decisiones judiciales
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REPROHEALTHLAW:  Nuestras publicaciones en español o portugués.
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