Kenya: High Court halts HIV+ data collection, upholding dignity & privacy

May 26, 2017

Many thanks to Professor Ebenezer Durojaye of the Dullah Omar Institute for Constitutional Law, Governance and Human Rights at the University of the Western Cape, for abstracting this significant judgment for REPROHEALTHLAW subscribers.  Prof. Durojaye can be reached at  ebenezerdurojaye19 at

Kenya Legal and Ethical Network on HIV & AIDS (KELIN) & 3 others v Cabinet Secretary Ministry of Health & 4 others [2016] eKLR Petition 250 of 2015. (High Court at Nairobi)  Decision online.

This case centres on a directive issued by Kenyan President Kenyatta requesting that the names of school-going HIV positive children, their guardians and HIV-positive pregnant women and their addresses be compiled for the purpose of assisting the government to respond and provide appropriate service and support to the children living with HIV/AIDS. The said information should include the number of children infected with HIV, number of guardians or caregivers infected with HIV, number of expectant mothers that are HIV positive and number of breastfeeding mothers who are HIV positive.

This directive was challenged by KELIN and others claiming that it violated the rights and privacy of people living with HIV as guaranteed in the Constitution and the “HIV Prevention and Control Act.” The Court agreed with this submission and found that the disclosure of school-going children’s HIV status will undermine the rights to dignity and privacy of children. While the intention of the government may be laudable, however, the implication of the directive will no doubt infringe on the rights of people living with HIV in general and HIV-positive children in particular. The International Guidelines on HIV provide that data and information about the HIV status of a person should be collected without linking the information to an individual.   This decision is significant in the sense that it not only protects the privacy and dignity of HIV positive persons (especially HIV positive children) but also addresses the implication of this for HIV related stigma and discrimination. It is a known fact that people living with HIV experience human rights abuses arising from stigma and discrimination. It is hoped that this decision will send a strong message to governments across Africa to desist from encroaching on right to privacy of HIV-positive persons, particularly HIV-positive children.

The full decision is online here.

Case Commentary by JURIST

Related Resources:

Kenyan constitutional  right to privacy was also upheld in this 2015 decision:
AIDS Law Project v. Attorney General and 3 Others [2015] eKLR, Petition No. 97 of 2010 (High Court of Kenya at Nairobi), declared not only that the criminal provision in Kenya’s HIV/AIDS Act was overbroad, vague, and therefore unconstitutional, but also that enforced disclosure of HIV status to sexual contacts violated constitutional right to privacy.   Decision online,  summarized and discussed in Legal Grounds III: Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts   pp. 171-176).  CRR press release.

Legal Grounds III:  Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts (Pretoria: PULP, 2017 ) [Discusses 54 court decisions 2008-2017, including 12 cases on “HIV”] Free PDF

Jacinta Nyachae and Paul Ogendi, “Litigating the right to health in Kenya: an analysis of selected cases,”  in: Litigating the Right to Health in Africa: Challenges and Prospects, ed. Ebenezer Durojaye (London, Routledge, 2015) Book information.

The REPROHEALTHLAW Blog is compiled by the International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto, Canada,  reprohealth*law at   For Program publications and resources, see our website, online here.
TO JOIN THIS BLOG: enter your email address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription

FIGO Bioethics: Case Studies in Women’s Health

July 2, 2013

Congratulations to Dr. Bernard Dickens and his expert colleagues on the Committee on Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women’s  Health, of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), who recently published a bioethics training curriculum for medical students and junior practitioners in obstetrics and gynecology.   It opens with a brief overview of basic bioethical principles, followed by 27 case studies through which students can apply the principles to propose ethical responses.  This curriculum can be used freely in order to stimulate means of ethical analysis, reflection and decision-making.

The Ethics Committee would be pleased to collaborate with any FIGO member society or any medical school department of obstetrics and gynecology that wants to use the materials and case studies in an ethics training program.  For further information, please contact Dr. Bernard Dickens by email   Bernard.dickens_AT#_utoronto .ca

FIGO Introduction to Principles and Practice of Bioethics:
Case Studies in Women’s Health   (2012)   online here through FIGO.
Curriculum in Spanish    Ahora en Español!

1.      Introduction – The Context
2.     The Background of Bioethics
3.     Ethics Principles:
——- * Respect for Persons: Autonomy and Protection of the Vulnerable
——- * Benefit and Avoidance of Harm: (Beneficence and Nonmaleficence)
——- * Justice
4. Levels of Analysis
5. Clinical Case Analysis
Table 1:  4 boxes for Reproductive/Women’s Health

Adolescent Sex and Confidentiality
Adolescents and Family Planning
Anencephaly and Late-Term Abortion
Antenatal Care  Bioethics and Faith-Based Organizations
Caesarean Section on Request
Choice of Home Birth
Clinical Research
Conflict of Interest
Cost Containment
Egg Donation
Female Genital Cutting / Mutilation (FGM)
Hepatitis B Vaccination
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccination
Illiterate Patients’ Informed Consent
Involuntary Female Sterilisation
Multiple Pregnancy
Obstetric Fistula
Refusal of Caesarean Section
Refusal of Treatment
Social Sex Selection
Task Shifting and Maternal Mortality
Termination of Adolescent Pregnancy
Appendix:    Instructors’ Guide

The entire book:  online here through FIGO.