Nepal: hacia una igualdad transformativa. El fallo Lakshmi Dhikta

November 30, 2017
 [Toward Transformative Equality in Nepal: The Lakshmi Dhikta Decision]

Melissa Upreti, “Nepal: hacia una igualdad transformativa. El fallo Lakshmi Dhikta,” El aborto en el derecho transnacional: Casos y controversias, editoras/es  Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman, y Bernard M. Dickens (FCE/CIDE, 2016) págs. 354-380. Disponible: en españolen inglés.

 

En 2009, la Corte Suprema de Nepal dictó un fallo monumental en el caso  Lakshmi Dhikta c. Nepal, donde reconoció que el aborto es un derecho fundamental protegido por la Constitución.   En este capitulo de El aborto en el derecho transnacional: Casos y controversias, Melissa Upreti aborda los cambiantes marcos de referencia a través de los cuales un tribunal constitucional analiza el aborto. La autora examina la sentencia de la Corte Suprema de Nepal en el caso Lakshmi Dhikta, que abordó los derechos de una mujer pobre del occidente de Nepal para que el gobierno cubriera los gastos de su aborto. Con objeto de establecer un amplio marco normativo del aborto, se consideró que la estrategia procesal idónea era fundamentar el litigio por motivos de interés público, lo que permitiría lograr un dictamen o una directiva de la corte para promulgar una ley amplia sobre el aborto que se pudiera utilizar para superar estos obstáculos.  La sentencia de la corte reforzó la transición del país desde la represión punitiva del aborto, basada en los preceptos del patriarcado y el alto valor que se le asigna a la fertilidad de la mujer en la religión hindú, a garantizar el acceso económico a servicios de aborto legal y seguro para las mujeres pobres. Upreti explica cómo la corte, guiada por un marco de igualdad transformativa, exigió que el gobierno garantice que las mujeres marginadas por la pobreza y el aislamiento geográfico tengan acceso oportuno a servicios gratuitos.

El fallo Lakshmi Dhikta refleja un cambio drástico fundado en una visión de igualdad transformativa: ya no se considera el aborto como un delito punible, sino como una elección reproductiva y de justicia. El fallo destaca que el aborto es un tema de elección personal, en el cual la mujer es quien controla su propio cuerpo y es a ella a quien le compete la decisión última sobre la procreación. La Corte ordenó al gobierno que eliminara los múltiples obstáculos que deben enfrentar las mujeres que desean acceder a un servicio de aborto seguro y que garantizara a todas las mujeres el acceso a servicios de aborto, en especial a las que son marginadas por su estatus socioeconómico o porque viven en medios rurales. Al analizar la relación entre la mujer y el embarazo, el fallo repudia los estereotipos tradicionales que restringen a la mujer a un papel de portadora de hijos y madre entregada al autosacrificio, enfoque que se empleó durante siglos con el fin de perpetuar el estatus subordinado de la mujer. La corte estableció que, para la mujer, el embarazo no puede ser una obligación, sino, por el contrario, un acto noble que cada una debe elegir libremente.

El aborto en el derecho transnacional: casos y controversias
es disponible en español    y en inglés.
Descargar: Reseña del libro en Andamios, por Diego Garcia Ricci
Introducción y Prólogo. 

Tabla de Casos/Jurisprudencia en línea con enlaces a muchas de las decisiones judiciales

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Únete a este blog aquí.
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El aborto en el derecho transnacional: casos y controversias

October 27, 2016

Resumen aqui

      
libro-aborto-portada

por Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman

y Bernard M. Dickens, (editores)
(México, FCE/CIDE 2016).

El debate jurídico y judicial sobre el aborto ha tenido, a lo largo del siglo XX y principios del XXI, importantes revoluciones en su abordaje teórico y práctico, que son expresión de estrategias de sectores sociales, religiosos y políticos que en ocasiones resultan contrapuestas.

Éste es un completo balance dinámico sobre las nuevas transiciones actuales y posibles y los desarrollos jurídicos más significativos a nivel transnacional en el tema del aborto, y da cuenta del nuevo desarrollo conceptual que concibe la idea de que no sólo la sanción penal, sino también la amenaza de la sanción penal, ponen en riesgo derechos fundamentales de las mujeres.

“…. Libro de gran actualidad y de avanzada … los autores tratan el tema del aborto con maestría desde las más variadas vertientes como pobreza, marginación, exclusión social, salud pública, penalización y derechos humanos….es y seguirá siendo lectura obligada para operadores jurídicos, sociólogos, economistas, políticos pero sobre todo para cualquier persona interesada en el tema.”

Olga Sánchez Cordero,  Ministra en retiro de la
Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación (México)

Introducción y Prólogo a la edición en español,

Tabla de Casos/Jurisprudencia en línea con enlaces a muchas de las decisiones judiciales

De venta en línea y en librerías del Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Oportunidad: Si desea escribir una reseña para alguna revista académica latinoamericana,  por favor escriba a  reprohealth . law @ utoronto . ca para solicitar una copia del libro.

SUMARIO:

Prólogo a la edición en espanol, por Víctor Abramovitch

Introducción, por Rebecca J. Cook,  Joanna N. Erdman, y Bernard M. Dickens

VALORES CONSTITUCIONALES Y REGÍMENES NORMATIVOS

La constitucionalización del aborto, por Reva B. Siegel     Resúmen aqui

El aborto en Portugal. Nuevas tendencias en el constitucionalismo europeo, por Ruth Rubio Marín     Resúmen aqui      PDF en português.

Los derechos de las mujeres en las sentencias sobre aborto del Tribunal  Constitucional de Eslovaquia, por Adriana Lamačková   Resúmen aqui

El principio de proporcionalidad en el control de constitucionalidad de las normas sobre aborto, por Verónica Undurraga   Resúmen aqui   y PDF em português

Un enfoque funcionalista al derecho comparado del aborto, por Rachel Rebouché  Resúmen aqui

JUSTICIA PROCESAL Y ACCESO LIBERALIZADO

El giro procesal: el aborto en el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos, por Joanna N. Erdman  Resumen aqui

La lucha contra las normas informales que regulaban el aborto en la Argentina, por Paola Bergallo   Resumen aqui

El papel de la transparencia en la reforma de leyes y prácticas del aborto en África, por Charles G. Ngwena   Resumen aqui

INTERPRETACIÓN Y REIVINDICACIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS

El marco de referencia médico y el aborto medicamentoso temprano en el Reino Unido.  ¿Cómo puede un Estado ejercer control sobre la ingesta de una píldora? por Sally Sheldon   Resumen aqui

El derecho a la conciencia, por Bernard M. Dickens    Resumen aqui

El sexo, las mujeres, y el inicio de la vida humana en el constitucionalismo católico, por Julieta Lemaitre Ripoll     Resumen aqui

El aborto en el debate público brasileño. Estrategias jurídicas del embarazo anencefálico, por Luís Roberto Barroso  Resumen aqui

Nepal, hacia una igualdad transformativa. El fallo Lakshmi Dhikta, por Melissa Upreti   Resumen aqui

 NARRATIVAS Y SIGNIFICADO SOCIAL

El tratamiento de las narrativas del sufrimiento inocente en el litigio transnacional del aborto, por Lisa M. Kelly  Resumen aqui

Narrativas sobre la personalidad jurídica del no nacido en la regulación del aborto, por Alejandro Madrazo   Resumen aqui

Significados estigmatizados del derecho penal sobre el aborto, por Rebecca J. Cook   Resumen aqui

Tabla de Casos/Jurisprudencia (en línea)

Tabla de legislación, tratados y otros instrumentos internacionales relevantes

 


Toward Transformative Equality in Nepal: The Lakshmi Dhikta Decision

November 26, 2015

Melissa Upreti,  “Toward Transformative Equality in Nepal: The Lakshmi Dhikta Decision,” chapter 13 in Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective: Cases and Controversies, ed. Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman, and Bernard M. Dickens (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014) pp. 279-300, 435n-440n.  Ahora disponible en español.

In 2009, the Supreme Court of Nepal issued a monumental decision in the case of Lakshmi Dhikta v. Nepal recognizing abortion as a constitutionally protected fundamental right.   In this chapter, Melissa Upreti addresses the shifting frames of reference through which a constitutional court analyzes abortion. She examines the decision of the Supreme Court of Nepal in the Lakshmi Dhikta case, which centered on a poor woman in rural Nepal who was denied access to a legal abortion due to her inability to pay for the service.  However, it was filed as a public interest case so it concerns the right of all women in Nepal to affordable abortion services.  The Court’s decision reinforced the transition from the country’s earlier punitive repression of abortion, based on Hindu religious precepts of patriarchy and the high value that they place on women’s fertility, to guarantee economic access to safe and legal abortion services for poor women. Upreti explains how the Court, guided by a frame of transformative equality, required the government to ensure that women marginalized by poverty and geographical remoteness have timely access to free services.

The Lakshmi Dhikta decision represented a dramatic shift from treating abortion as a matter of crime and punishment to one of reproductive choice and justice grounded in a vision of transformative equality.  It underscored that abortion is a matter of personal choice, that women have rights over their own bodies and have the final say in decisions concerning their procreation. The Court obligated the government to address the multiple barriers women face in accessing safe abortion services, and to ensure that all women, especially those marginalized by socioeconomic and rural status, have access to abortion services.  In examining the relationship between women and pregnancy, the Court repudiated traditional stereotypes of women that reduce them to the role of bearers of children and self- sacrificing mothers, which have been employed for centuries to perpetuate their subordinate status. The Court established that pregnancy cannot be imposed on women as an obligation but rather recognizes it as a noble act that must be freely chosen.

Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective: Cases and Controversies was first published in August 2014 by the University of Pennsylvania Press’s Studies in Human Rights Series.   Table of Contents and other information online.   A Spanish edition was published in August, 2016.  Ahora disponible en español.


Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective: Cases and Controversies

September 4, 2014

 Edited by Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman, and Bernard M. Dickens, U Penn Press, 2014, 480 pages Hardcover or ebook.  Available at University of Pennsylvania Press.   Spanish edition (FCE, 2016):   ¡en español!
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Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective: Cases and Controversies offers a fresh look at significant transnational legal developments in recent years, examining key judicial decisions, constitutional texts, and regulatory reforms of abortion law in order to envision ways ahead.

Table of Contents

Introduction, Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman, and Bernard M. Dickens  Download or read

Part I. Constitutional Values and Regulatory Regimes

The Constitutionalization of Abortion, Reva B. Siegel   Read abstract

Abortion in Portugal: New Trends in European Constitutionalism, Ruth Rubio-Marín Read abstract

Women’s Rights in the Abortion Decision of the Slovak Constitutional Court, Adriana Lamacková  Read abstract,

Proportionality in the Constitutional Review of Abortion Law, Verónica Undurraga Read abstract,

A Functionalist Approach to Comparative Abortion Law, Rachel Rebouché Read abstract,

Part II. Procedural Justice and Liberal Access

The Procedural Turn: Abortion at the European Court of Human Rights, Joanna N. Erdman  Read abstract,

The Struggle Against Informal Rules on Abortion in Argentina, Paola Bergallo  Read abstract,

Reforming African Abortion Laws and Practice: The Place of Transparency, Charles G. Ngwena  Read abstract,

Part III. Framing and Claiming Rights

The Medical Framework and Early Medical Abortion in the U.K.: How Can a State Control Swallowing? Sally Sheldon  Read abstract

The Right to Conscience, Bernard M. Dickens  Read abstract,

Catholic Constitutionalism on Sex, Women, and the Beginning of Life, Julieta Lemaitre  Read abstract,

Bringing Abortion into the Brazilian Public Debate: Legal Strategies for Anencephalic Pregnancy,   Luís Roberto Barroso    Read abstract

Toward Transformative Equality in Nepal: The Lakshmi Dhikta Decision,  Melissa Upreti  Read abstract

Part IV. Narratives and Social Meaning

Reckoning with Narratives of Innocent Suffering in Transnational Abortion Litigation, Lisa M. Kelly  Read abstract,

Narratives of Prenatal Personhood in Abortion Law, Alejandro Madrazo,  Read abstract,

Stigmatized Meanings of Criminal Abortion Law, Rebecca J. Cook, Read abstract

Table of Legislation.
Table of Cases. (online here, with links to decisions in English and/or other languages). _______________________________________________________________
Early reviews and full description from U Penn Press: online here.
Introduction by the editors (online through SSRN) includes an overview of the chapters.
Book reviewers should contact Gigi Lamm (glamm {a} pobox. upenn. edu)
Many thanks to the 16 authors of this exceptional anthology!

Court decisions, Resources, News, Fellowships and Jobs

October 17, 2012

REPROHEALTHLAW-L
Oct 17, 2012

COURT DECISIONS

Argentina – Supreme Court approves abortion for raped woman forced into prostitution  News report   
Related criminal complaint against Buenos Aires mayor for divulging private information to delay abortion   News report

Canada:  Supreme Court:  Low-risk ARV patients need not disclose HIV positive status to sex partners if condom used.  Such deception no longer poses “significant risk of serious bodily harm”.   R. v. Mabior, 2012 SCC 47, Oct 5, 2012.  Decision online.

Colombia:  Constitutional Court  ruling reaffirms the duty of all State public employees to provide accurate information on sexual and reproductive health and rights.  In this historic decision, Sept. 12, 2012, the Court ruled against government officials who were disseminating false, incomplete or distorted information, in blatant disregard for the verifiable findings of judicial, scientific and legal authorities.  Press releases from Women’s Link Worldwide: 
English press release 
Spanish press release

European Court of Human Rights, July 24, 2012, D.J. v Croatia:
Croatia failed to adequately investigate rape claim.  Decision online 
Interights submitted a third-party brief on secondary victimization of rape victims by law enforcement and justice personnel. 
Overview & links to brief

RESOURCES

“Abortion Worldwide” – Guttmacher educational video (4 minutes)  illustrates key evidence and statistics:   
English video       Spanish video     French video

[abortion] Dignity and Sexuality: Claims on Dignity in Transnational Debates Over Abortion and Same-Sex Marriage, by Reva B. Siegel. I•CON 10 (2012), 355-379; Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 259. Working paper online

[abortion, Nepal]  10th Anniversary of 2002 decriminalization of abortion.  Since then, maternal deaths have declined 78%.
(3 short videos by ASAP):
1. Nepal Before the Decriminalization Bill of 2002, interview with Dr. Anand Tamang, director of CREHPA, Nepal
about the research studies that gave activists the ammunition they needed to challenge the abortion law    5 minute video
2. The Legal Struggle to Decriminalize Abortion – interview with Advocate Sapana Pradhan Malla recalls the legal struggle to create an abortion exemption under the homicide law.  Nepal still needs a separate rights-based law   5 minute video
3.Increasing Access to Safe Abortion – interview with Dr. Indira Basnett, Director Ipas Nepal,  re strategies to improve Accessibility, Acceptability and Affordability  5 minute video 

[abortion stigma]  Ethicist Leslie Cannold’s 19-minute video explains the problem abortion stigma and suggests how to break the cycle of shame, silence and ignorance    19-minute video

[abortion UK] “Abortion: The Civilised Solution” – Dr. Ellie Lee advocates decriminalization of abortion in discussion with young people. 44-minute video

[conscientious objection] “Is there no alternative? Conscientious objection by medical students” by Robert F Card,  Journal of Medical Ethics  38 (2012):  602-604.  Abstract does not not mention abortion, but article does.   article & abstract

Conscientious Objection to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services: International Human Rights Standards and European Law and Practice, by Christina Zampas and Ximena Andión-Ibañez,  European Journal of Health Law 19 (2012) 231-256.   article online.

[assisted repro – Latin America]  The Legal Status of In Vitro Fertilization in Latin America and the American Convention on Human Rights, by Martin Hevia & Carlos Herrera Vacaflor.  Suffolk Transnational Law Review, Forthcoming.  Article online

[maternal mortality/morbidity reduction] “Technical guidance on the application of a Human Rights-based Approach to the implementation of policies and programmes to reduce preventable maternal morbidity and mortality,” submitted to UN Human Rights Council, July 2, 2012    Press Release       Guidance Document  

Gender Issues and International Human Rights: An Overview” by Dianne L. Otto, Human Rights Law Series, Edward Elgar (2012); U of Melbourne Legal Studies Research Paper No. 606.  Article online

Reproductive and Sexual Health Law – upper-year course at University of  Toronto law school – course materials available online for noncommercial educational use or adaptation to other contexts.  Course materials online

US-focused news and legal developments are available on Repro Rights Prof Blog.  View or subscribe here.

NEWS:

[abortion – Australia] “Politics v women’s health: RU486 and the TGA saga ”  Mifepristone (RU486) finally added to Australia Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG) in August 2012.   News report 

France will reimburse abortions 100%, begining 2013.  News report.

[abortion – Jamaica] CEDAW urges Jamaica to reconsider abortion laws for cases of rape, incest. News report.

[abortion – Morocco] – Abortion ship launches safe abortion hotline in Morocco.  Press release

[abortion – Northern Ireland] New Marie Stopes clinic to offer abortion services within current legal framework.  News report

[abortion – Uruguay]  Uruguay set to legalize abortion -final debate in Senate begins today.   News report

 FELLOWSHIPS

Center for Reproductive Rights/Columbia Law School Fellowship
2-year, post-graduate fellowship, to prepare recent law school graduates for legal academic careers in reproductive health and human rights.  For the 2013-2015 cycle, apply by October 29, 2012.  Fellowship details

Law Students for  Reproductive Justice – Fellowship Program for current 3Ls and recent law school graduates interested in working to advance reproductive justice through policy advocacy.  Apply by Nov  1, 2012.  Fellowship details

JOBS

Executive Director, Canadians for Choice, apply by Oct 26, 2012. 
Job details

Women’s Legal Rights Advisor – Mexico – apply by Nov 15, 2012. 
Job details

Links to other employers in the field of Reproductive and Sexual Health Law are now online here.

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Compiled by the Coordinator of the International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program, Email  reprohealth*law (a) utoronto*ca
For Program publications and resources, see our website, online here.


Calls, Resources, News and Jobs

June 25, 2012

REPROHEALTHLAW-L
June 25, 2012

CALLS

Call for papers: “Making progress in realizing women’s human rights: the role of the CEDAW Commitee and other international human rights monitoring bodies’,  Call for articles for the Tijdschrift voor Genderstudies  (Journal for Gender Studies). Send outlines for articles in English or Dutch (400 – 500 words) before 15 July 2012 to Fleur van Leeuwen (FC_van_Leeuwen@hotmail.com) \
For details in English, click here, then click “Oproep door artikelen” and scroll to the bottom.

RESOURCES

[abortion -adolescents] Parental Involvement Laws and New Governance  Rachel Rebouché, 34 Harv. J. L. & Gender 175 (2011).     Abstract online.

[abortion & prenatal genetic testing] Mixed Messages: The Intersection of Prenatal Genetic Testing and Abortion, by Rachel Rebouché & Karen H. Rothenberg,  Howard Law Journal, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2012; U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-26.  Abstract online.

[abortion & prenatal protections] “Whose Right to Life?: Women’s Rights and Prenatal Protections under Human Rights and Comparative Law. Toolkit from the Center for Reproductive Rights.

[abortion – Dominican Republic] “Resolving Conflicts of Constitution: Inside the Dominican Republic’s Constitutional Ban on Abortion” by Mia So (2011) 86:2 Indiana Law Journal 714-32.  Article online.

[abortion, Uruguay] “The Politics of Reproductive Health Rights in Uruguay: Why the Presidential Veto to the Right to Abortion is Illegitimate” Oscar A. Cabrera, Martin Hevia, Fanny Gómez-Lugo & Analia Banfi-Vique,  (2011). Revista de Direito Sanitário, São Paulo – Journal of Health Law, July 2011.  Article online.

[adolescents] United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Draft Resolution on “Adolescents and Youth”,  April 27, 2012.   Draft Resolution, online here, includes:

  •   the ICPD list of reproductive health services including safe abortion (OP27);
  •   ICPD language on reproductive rights (PP15)
  •   Sexual Rights” as adopted in Beijing para 96 (human rights and sexuality) applied to adolescents and youth (OP7)
  •   Eliminating harmful traditional practices, including early and forced marriages (OP9)
  •   Access to contraception for women living with HIV and AIDS (PP17)
  •   Gender equality (PP13, OP16)

[Africa: HIV & stigma]  “The Impact of Routine HIV Testing on HIV-Related Stigma and Discrimination in Africa” by Ebenezer Tope Durojaye(2011). International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, Vol 11, No. 4, pp. 187-200, 2011. Abstract online.

Stereotyping Updates newsletter, by Simone Cusack, May 2012,
is now online.
Significant decisions on gender stereotyping over recent months include:

  •  European Court of Human Rights (Konstantin Markin v. Russia), Parental leave for servicemen
  •  Inter-American Court of Human Rights (Atala Riffo and daughters v. Chile), Lesbian mother allowed custody of children after divorce
  •  U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission (Macy v. Holder). Transgender employee discrimination

NEWS:

Chile:  Review of a Study by Koch et al. on the Impact of Abortion Restrictions on Maternal Mortality in Chile,  Guttmacher Advisory,
May 2012.  Online here.

Chile, anencephaly:  Women forced to be ‘human coffins’ – new campaigns to change legislation.  News item.

China: one-child policy leads to forced abortions, mothers’ deaths.
News item.

Nepal:  “Safe and affordable abortion: Women’s right”  by Melissa Upreti.  News item.

Rwanda: MPs to Harmonise Abortion Act with Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (“Maputo” Protocol).  News item.

Rwanda: MPs passed the draft Penal Code. Majority voted in favour of legal abortions in cases of rape, incest, forced marriage, or jeopardy to health of the woman or the fetus. Code now goes to the Senate for approval.  News item.

Sri Lanka:  Abortion laws – another view  – authorities considering abortion law reform for cases of ‘underage’ rape and incest.
Published letter by Ramya Kumar et al.

Turkey:  Europe must fight Turkish abortion restrictions, by Lilian Sepulveda.  Article online

Zambia:  The term “conception” in the Zambian constitution is ambiguous. News item.

JOBS

Associate, O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law, Georgetown University, Washington DC USA.  Apply by July 31, 2012.  More information online

Links to employers in the field of Reproductive and Sexual Health Law
are online in right sidebar of this blog.

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For Program publications and resources, see our website, online here.