AFRICA: Legal Grounds III: Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts – 54 case summaries

February 14, 2017

2017_legal_grounds

by: Godfrey Kangaude, Onyema Afulukwe, Guy-Fleury Ntwari, et al.
Foreword by Prof. Charles G. Ngwena
PULP (Pretoria University Law Press) 2017
Download entire 228 page book online.
Online edition with links to decisions
Printable flyer with Table of Contents
Previous volumes
.

Reproductive and sexual rights, which are guaranteed in constitutions and in international and regional human rights treaties, have no impact if they are not recognized and enforced by national-level courts. Legal Grounds: Sexual and Reproductive Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts Volume III continues to provide much-needed information about whether and how national courts of African countries apply constitutional and human rights to protect reproductive and sexual rights. The case summaries, significance sections, and thematic highlights serve as useful resources for those seeking to further develop litigation, advocacy, and capacity- building strategies.

Like its predecessors, Legal Grounds: Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts – Volume III is a tool for organizations, individuals, and institutions of learning. The scope of this third volume has been widened beyond Commonwealth African countries to include cases from Francophone countries, while focusing more exclusively on court decisions related to reproductive and sexual health. This compelling publication contributes towards a knowledge base of court decisions that bear directly or indirectly on the exercise of reproductive and sexual health as constitutional and human rights in Africa.
228 page book onlinePrevious volumes Printable flyer with Table of Contents.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Foreword, Introduction, Acknowledgments
Children and Adolescents
—Child, Forced and Early Marriage
—Female Genital Mutilation legal-grounds/
—Sexual Abuse, Assault and Violence
—Consensual Sexual Conduct
—Student Pregnancy
—Maternal Health Care and Services
Abortion and Fetal Interests
—Abortion
—Wrongful Birth or Life
Adoption and Surrogacy
—Adoption
—Surrogacy
Gender, Sexuality, Women and Discrimination
—Rape
—Disability, Sexuality and Criminal Law
—Women and Criminal Law
—Legal Recognition of Intersexuality
—Gender Identity
—Sexual Orientation
—Recognition of LGBTIQ Advocacy and Groups
HIV
—Access to Treatment
—Criminalisation of Transmission
—Forced Sterilization
—Discrimination in Employment
Francophone Africa / L’Afrique Francophone
—Adultery, Polygamy, Infanticide
Appendices – Table of Cases, Online Resources, Endnotes

HIGHLIGHTS BY AFRICAN AUTHORS:
Child Marriage: Legal and Socio-Cultural Aspects, by Godfrey Kangaude
Adolescent Consensual Sexual Conduct, by Godfrey Kangaude
Sexual Abuse, Assault and Violence, by Victoria Balogun
Maternal Health Care and Services, by Tinyade Kachika
Abortion and Fetal Interests, by Onyema Afulukwe
Adoption and Surrogacy, by Ronaldah Lerato Karabo Ozah
Gender, Sexuality, Women and Discrimination, by MaryFrances Lukera
Criminalisation of HIV Non-Disclosure, Exposure and Transmission, by Jacinta Nyachae
Sexual and Reproductive Rights of Women Living with HIV, by Ebenezer Durojaye
Towards Respect for Human Diversity, by Godfrey Kangaude

COUNTRIES:  Benin, Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda,  Zambia, Zimbabwe

228 page book online.  Previous volumes.
Printable flyer with Table of Contents.


South Africa: Decriminalization of adolescent consensual sex

April 21, 2016

Many thanks to Godfrey Kangaude, LL.M. (UFS), LL.M. (UCLA), Executive Director of the Malawi Law Society and Co-Director of Nyale Institute for Sexual and Reproductive Health Governance, and Phiwo Nyobo, an LL.M. candidate in Sexual and Reproductive Rights in the Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, for collaborating on a new African case summary for our forthcoming publication, Legal Grounds III: Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts.  

In the first Teddy Bear case of 2013,  a South African High Court proposed decriminalization of adolescent consensual sexual conduct.[1]   Later that year, the Constitutional Court suspended all laws criminalizing adolescent consensual sexual conduct, pending review by Parliament.  As Kangaude notes, this South African decision is “revolutionary because it affirmed adolescents as sexual beings who may engage in consensual sexual conduct, and that this was in certain circumstances normal and even critical for normal and healthy development.” ([2] p.5)

On July 7, 2015, the South African government duly amended its Criminal Law, decriminalizing consensual adolescent sexuality.[3]  The Amendment was welcomed by advocacy groups [4]  and legal specialists.[5]

“South Africa arrived at the Teddy Bear decision using its Constitution and domestic laws. Some African countries [6] [7] still cling to criminal laws that treat consensual sex between adolescents as problematic.  Invariably, this creates conditions that perpetuate the thinking that consensual sexual behaviour amongst adolescents is always harmful. Yet girls and boys still engage in some form of sexual conduct. Since the norms and laws prevent them from getting the necessary support, such as sexual and reproductive health information and services, the consequences include . . . unwanted pregnancy, STIs and unsafe abortions…” ([2] p.5)

The African Commission’s General Comment on Article 14 (1) (d) and (e) of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, oblige states to realize wide ranging human rights, not only for adults, but also for adolescents. As Kangaude concludes, “It is only by respecting the rights of the adolescent in matters regarding sexuality that a society will tend towards achieving better sexual and reproductive health, not only for adolescents but for everyone.” ([2] p.6]

———————————–NOTES

[1] Teddy Bear Clinic for Abused Children and Another v Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and Another, Case No. 73300/10 [2013] ZAGPPHC 1 (North Gauteng High Court, Pretoria).  High Court decisionCase summary by Godfrey Kangaude and Phiwo Nyobo, 2015.

[2] Teddy Bear Clinic for Abused Children and Another v Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and Another (CCT 12/13) [2013] ZACC 35;  (South Africa: Constitutional Court).   Constitutional Court decision.  Case summary by Godfrey Kangaude and Phiwo Nyobo, 2015.

[3] Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 5 of 2015 – Government Notice 593 in Government Gazette 38977 dated and commenced July 7, 2015. Amendment Act 5.   Entire Act.

[4] “Towards healthy adolescent sexuality”  by Suhayfa Bhamjee, lecturer in the School of Law at University of Kwazulu-Natal. Legal analysis of draft amendment.

[5] “Revised adolescent sex bill welcomed by Advocacy groups.”  News report.

[6] In our second case summary, p. 5, Kangaude discusses Uganda’s anti-defilement law, which criminalises consensual sex with girls under 18, citing SA Parikh, “‘They arrested me for loving a schoolgirl’: Ethnography, HIV, and a feminist assessmentof the age of consent law as a gender-based structural intervention in Uganda’” (2012) 74 Social Science and Medicine 1774-1782.

[7] For another negative contrast, see the Kenyan decision C.K.W. v. Attorney General & Another [2014] eKLR, Petition 6 of 2013 (High Court of Kenya at Eldoret), which not only upheld criminalisation of adolescent consensual sex, but ignored gender bias in the law.  Decision online.   Case summary by Godfrey Kangaude and Mobby Rusere.

[8] For further discussion of the legal, ethical and reproductive health issues , see Godfrey Kangaude, “Enhancing the Role of Health Professionals in the Advancement of Adolescent Sexual Health and Rights in Africa” (2016). International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 132 (2016) 105-108.  Abstract and Article.


REPROHEALTHLAW Updates: Decisions, News, Resources and Jobs

January 14, 2016

REPROHEALTHLAW
January 14, 2016

SUBSCRIBE TO REPROHEALTHLAW:  To receive these updates monthly by email, enter your address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.

DECISIONS AND LEGAL DEVELOPMENTS:

Dominican Republic: Constitutional Court Repeals Abortion Law  (Dec.04, 2015 Despite progress made by the Dominican Republic in 2014 to amend the penal code to decriminalize abortion in limited circumstances, the Constitutional Tribunal of the Supreme Court this week declared this amendment unconstitutional. CRR Press Release. Colectiva Mujer y Salud press releaseThomson-Reuters news report.

Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission, Re Judicial Review [2015] NIQB 96, November 30, 2015  (High Court of Justice in Belfast):  Northern Ireland’s abortion law are incompatible with European Convention on Human Rights Article 8 because it does not allow exceptions for fatal fetal abnormalities, rape, or incest.   The  judgment also has implications for Commonwealth countries that retain the English 1861 Offences Against the Person Act.   Decision of November 30, 2015Official summaryReprohealthlaw blog    “Judge leaves Northern Ireland’s abortion laws to lawmakers.” New York Times     “Northern Ireland medics fear prison over abortion advice” Guardian article.

Sierra Leone – Update – Safe Abortion Act delayed.    President Koroma “engages” religious leaders, delaying legalization.  He plans to send the Act back to Parliament for review.  Government press release.  The International Campaign for Safe Abortion, a coalition of NGOs, is circulating an Ipas petition urging quick passage of the Safe Abortion Act into law:   Petition to the President of Sierra Leone.

[Uganda]: Centre for Health, Human Rights and Development [CEHURD] and Iga Daniel v Attorney General [2015], Constitutional Petition No. 64 of 2011 (Constitutional Court of Uganda at Kampala).  The decision deals in part with criminalization of sex with women with mental disabilities.  Dehumanizing language “idiot” or “imbecile” has been replaced  Decision online.

EVENTS

[abortion] 3rd International Congress on Women’s Health and Unsafe Abortion (IWAC 2016), Bangkok, Thailand, January 26-29, 2016.  Congress details.

Abortion Under Apartheid: Nationalism, Sexuality, and Women’s Reproductive Rights, book presented by Susanne Klausen (Oxford University Press, 2015) at Carleton University, Ottawa, on Friday January 29, from 12:30 to 2:30 in the History Lounge (Paterson Hall, room 433) book launch details.

[assisted reproduction, surrogacy]”Assisted Reproduction: Navigating the Criminalization of Commercial Surrogacy and Reacting to Unexpected Situations”  McGill Journal of Law and Health’s Annual Colloquium, February 6th, 2016, 10:00-14:00, Faculty of Law, New Chancellor Day Hall, Room 100 (Moot Court), McGill University, Montreal, Canada.  RSVP here.

[Northern Ireland]”Abortion and Reproductive Justice- The Unfinished Revolution II”  International Conference, Ulster University, Belfast, Northern Ireland,  June 2-3, 2016.  Conference details.

[abortion] “Improving women’s journeys through abortion,” 12th FIAPAC conference,  Lisbon, Portugal, Oct 13-15 2016  (Abstracts due April 15, Early registration by June 30) FIAPAC 2016 details.

PUBLICATIONS:

[abortion, anencephalic pregnancy, Brazil] The new Brazilian law journal Revista Publicum, based at the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) released its first issue on December 30, 2015, 261 pages, in Portuguese.  It contains an interview with Supreme Court judge Luis Roberto Barroso, who discusses the legalization of abortion in cases of fetal anencephaly.   new Brazilian law journal.   Related Resource:  “Bringing abortion into the Brazilian Public Debate: Legal strategies for anencephalic pregnancy,” by Luis Roberto Barroso, abstracted here.

Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective:  Cases and Controversies, ed. Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman and Bernard M. Dickens, 16 chapters.  University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014, 482 pages.  Introduction by the editors. Table of Cases online  Table of Contents with chapter abstractsPurchase from U Penn Press.  Now in Spanish: ¡Ahora en español!

[abortion, Eastern Europe] “Mandatory Waiting Periods and Biased Counseling Requirements in Central and Eastern Europe: Restricting Access to Abortion, Undermining Human Rights, and Reinforcing Harmful Gender Stereotypes. (Center for Reproductive Rights, 2015)  abstract and 13-page fact sheets.

[abortion, Latin America] Guía de entrenamiento de causal violencia sexual: dirigida a personal de la salud y judicial   [Training guide on legal abortion on grounds of rape: for health care personnel and the judiciary] by Ana Cristina González Vélez y Viviana Bohorquez Monsalve (Bogotá: August 2013.    Full text in Spanish.

[abortion, Latin America] Interrupción legal del embarazo por la causal violación: enfoques de salud y jurídico [Legal abortion on grounds of rape: approaches from a health and legal perspective] por Paola Bergallo y Ana Cristina González Velez con las contribuciones del Grupo Foro Virtual Causal Violación y la Secretaría Técnica y Asistente:  Silvina Ramos con la colaboración de Agustina Ramón Michel   (Bogota, La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de las Mujeres, 2012), 212 pages  PDF (3 mb) now online in Spanish

[abortion -Northern Ireland) “Human Rights and Making Change: Looking Backwards and Moving Forwards from the Northern Ireland High Court Decision on Abortion” December 10, 2015  by Dr Catherine O’Rourke, University College Cork, Faculty of Law, CCJHR blog post.

[abortion – Northern Ireland] “Submission of Evidence to the CEDAW Committee Optional Protocol: Inquiry Procedure,  by the Family Planning Association Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland Women’s European Platform (NIWEP), and Alliance For Choice, February 11, 2015. Abstract and Full Text.

[abortion, South Africa]  Claiming and defending abortion rights in South Africa  by Cathi Albertyn,  Revista direito GV São Paulo 11(2) (JUL-DEZ 2015) 429-454.   Abstract and full text in English, abstract in Portuguese.  [Reivindicando e defendendo o direito ao aborto na África do Sul]

[adolescents] “Enhancing the Role of Health Professionals in the Advancement Of Adolescent Sexual Health and Rights in Africa” (2016), by Godfrey Kangaude. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 132 (2016) 105–108.  online here.

Adolescents’ reproductive and sexual health – “Recommended Reading” – new section of our Adolescents topic page, online here.  It includes these recent papers:

—“The potential of the Expert Committee of the African Children’s Charter in advancing adolescent sexual health and rights in Africa,” by Ebenezer Durojaye,  (2013) 46:3 The Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa 385. Online here.

—“Righting the mismatch between law, policy and the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people in the Asia-Pacific Region” by J. Godwin, et al.  (2014) 22:44 Reproductive Health Matters 137. Article online.

—“Sexual health and rights of adolescents: A dialogue with sub Saharan Africa” by Godfrey Kangaude and Tiffany Banda, “ in Charles Ngwena and Ebenezer Durojaye, eds, Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health through human rights in the African Region through human rights (Pretoria: University of Pretoria Law Press; 2014) 251.

—“Adolescent girls, HIV, and state obligations under the African Women’s Rights Protocol” by Karen Stefiszyn, in Charles Ngwena and Ebenezer Durojaye, eds, Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health through human rights in the African Region through human rights (Pretoria: University of Pretoria Law Press; 2014) 155.

[obstetric violence] “Making Loud Bodies ‘Feminine’: A Feminist-Phenomenological Analysis of Obstetric Violence,” by Sara Cohen Shabot, Human Studies (published online Oct 9, 2015), pp 1-17.  Abstract and article.

“Patients’ Refusal of Recommended Treatment” (2015), by Bernard Dickens and Rebecca Cook. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 131 (2015) 105–108.  Article and abstract online at SSRN.

US-focused news, resources, and legal developments are available on Repro Rights Prof Blog. View or subscribe.

NEWS

[abortion – Women on Web] “From Nagpur to Northern Ireland: pill pipeline helping women get round abortion laws” Guardian article.

European Union Divorces Itself from US Abortion Ban – 2016 Budget mandates EU funds, “not be subject to restrictions imposed by other partner donors” (i.e. US ban on use of funds for abortions)  Global Justice Centre comment.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

[Canada, HIV/AIDS]  Policy Analyst/Researcher, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network.  Please send cover letter, resume and unedited writing sample to hiring {at} aidslaw.ca asap or before January 31, 2016.  Job details.

[United Kingdom] 2-year postdoctoral researcher needed to work with Prof. Sally Sheldon and  interdisciplinary research team on an AHRC-funded project, “The Abortion Act: a Biography.”   Kent Law School Kent University , Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom.  Postdoctoral work details

Deputy Director, Public Health Program, Open Society, New York, USA.   Job details

Executive Director,  Asia Catalyst, New York, USA, which builds strong civil society and advances the right to health for marginalized groups in Asia  Job details

Links to other employers in the field of Reproductive and Sexual Health Law are online here

Compiled by the Coordinator of the International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program, reprohealth*law at utoronto.ca For Program publications and resources, see our website, online here.
TO JOIN THIS BLOG: enter your email address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.


Enhancing the Role of Health Professionals for Adolescent Sexual Health and Rights in Africa

January 14, 2016

Congratulations to Godfrey Kangaude, LL.M. (UFS), LL.M. (UCLA), Executive Director of the Malawi Law Society and Co-Director of Nyale Institute for Sexual and Reproductive Health Governance, whose recently published article is now available online:

Godfrey Kangaude, “Enhancing the Role of Health Professionals in the Advancement Of Adolescent Sexual Health and Rights in Africa” (2016). International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 132 (2016) 105–108.  online here.

Abstract:      To realize adolescents’ right to sexual health, state parties’ implementation of the obligations stipulated under Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa should reflect the key principles of the rights of the child, articulated under the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Welfare and Rights of the Child. However, societal norms that stigmatize adolescent sexual conduct constitute barriers to adolescents’ sexual health care, including their access to contraceptives to avoid unwanted pregnancies and protect themselves from sexually-transmitted infections and HIV. States should sensitize and train health professionals to provide sexual health services and care in accordance with the principles of the rights of the child, and create enabling laws and policies to facilitate their work with adolescents.

The full text of this article is online here.

For “Recommended Reading” about adolescent reproductive and sexual health law, with abstracts, see our updated information resources on Adolescents, online here.

More IJGO articles on Ethical and Legal Issues in Reproductive Health are online here.


REPROHEALTHLAW Updates: Decisions, Publications, News and Opportunities

November 5, 2015

REPROHEALTHLAW-L
November 5, 2015

SUBSCRIBE TO REPROHEALTHLAW:  To receive these updates monthly by email, enter your address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.

COURT DECISIONS:

KENYA:   High Court: Maternity Hospital Illegally Imprisoned Women, Violated Human Rights.
Millicent Awuor Omuya alias Maimuna Awuor & Another v The Attorney General & 4 Others [2015], Petition No. 562 of 2012, (High Court of Kenya at Nairobi (Constitutional and Human Rights Division).    Court orders Ministry of Health to address discrimination in public hospitals and award compensation to women who were unlawfully detained, CRR Press release.  ‘When Does a Hospital Become a Jail? When You Can’t Afford the Bill”  Open Society commentCRR Fact-finding report: “Failure to deliver…”.

UGANDA:  Supreme Court strikes down evasive 2012 Constitutional Court decision and orders it to hear maternal health petition.
The Centre for Health, Human Rights and Development CEHURD  and 3 Others v Attorney General [2015], Constitutional Appeal No. 01 of 2013 (Supreme Court of Uganda at Kampala), Judgments by Kisaakye, JSC and Katureebe, CJ.   Decision and CEHURD comments online,.

CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS/PARTICIPATION

[abortion] International Seminar on Medication Abortion, Dakar, Senegal, July 12-14, 2016, organized by the IUSSP Scientific Panel on Abortion Research, the STEP UP Research Programme Consortium, and the Population Council Senegal.  Submit abstracts or unpublished papers by November 30, 2015  in English, French or Spanish (working language of meeting will be English). For details, contact seminar organizer Susheela Singh {ssingh} by email at Guttmacher . org

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES, EVENTS

[abortion symposium]  “Comment progresse l’accès à l’avortement dans des contextes restrictifs ? Perspectives historiques et internationals,” Journée scientifique Pôle Suds-Ceped-Unige,  Mardi 8 décembre 2015, INED, 133, boulevard Davout  (Salle Sauvy), 75020 Paris, France,      Details online.

[Canada]”The Future of Health Law,”  National Health Law Conference,  University of Ottawa, November 19-21, 2015.  Details online.   Schedule.

Global School of Health Rights Litigation (at national, regional and international levels), intensive course June 13 – 17, 2016 at Georgetown University Law Center in Washington, DC.  hosted by The O’Neill Institute and Harvard FXB.  Course details.

New J.D./LL.M. Program in Global Health Law at Georgetown University Law Center in Washington, DC.  JD/LLM Georgetown.

Summer 2016 Legal Internships in Oakland, CA, USA,  10 week summer program for law students, 2 paid positions available, Law Students for Reproductive Justice (USA)  Summer internship info.

PUBLICATIONS

“Abortion law in Australia: it’s time for national consistency and decriminalization,”  by Caroline M de Costa and Heather Douglas,  Medical Journal of Australia  2015;203(9).  Article online.

Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective:  Cases and Controversies, ed. Rebecca J. Cook, Joanna N. Erdman and Bernard M. Dickens, 16 chapters.  University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014, 482 pages. Introduction by the editors. Table of Cases online  Table of ContentsPurchase from U Penn Press. A Spanish edition was published in August, 2016.  Ahora disponible en español.

[abortion – mifepristone – Canada]   What is RU 486 (mifepristone) and how does it work? Overview 

[abortion – United Kingdom)  “The decriminalisation of abortion: an argument for modernisation,” by Sally Sheldon, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 2015;35(3):1-32.   Early access.

[CEDAW, human rights] “Why do national court judges refer to human rights treaties? : A comparative international law analysis of CEDAW,” by Christopher McCrudden, American Journal of International Law, forthcoming. Abstract and article online.

[conscience] “Drawing the Line: Tackling tensions between religious freedom and equality.” International Network of Civil Liberties Organizations, 2015. 56-page report

[conscience] “A multinational review of efforts to regulate conscience-based objection to abortion,” by B. Kumar Aksel and W. Chavkin,  Contraception 92 (2015), page 402, broad abstract of study results from 22 countries where abortion legalized.  Available to subscriber institutions.

[El Salvador]  Independent analysis of systematic gender discrimination in the El Salvador Judicial process against 17 women accused of the aggravated homicide of their newborns, by Jocelyn Viterna, Associate Professor Sociology, Harvard University / José Santos Guardado Bautista, Lawyer, El Salvador  Full Report.

[Mexico]  Women and girls without justice: reproductive rights in Mexico:  Advances, unfufilled commitments, setbacks, by Grupo de Información en Reproducción Elegida (GIRE) / Red de Abogados poe la Defensa de Reproducción Elegida (RADAR)    Español.   English.

[adolescents, Nigeria] “Ethical Issues in Adolescents’ Sexual and Reproductive Health Research in Nigeria”
by Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Bridget Haire, Abigail Harrison, Morolake Odetoyingbo, Olawunmi Fatusi and Brandon Brown,  Developing World Bioethics 15.3 (December 2015), pp. 191–198)  Online for institutional subscribers

World Report on Women’s Health 2015: The unfinished agenda of women’s reproductive health.  International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 131 (Oct 2015):  Supplement 1, online here.   Includes:
—[editorial:] The unfinished agenda of women’s reproductive health, by Chittaranjan Narahari Purandare, Richard M.K. Adanu , Pages S1-S2
—Strengthening accountability to end preventable maternal deaths, by Matthews Mathai, Thandassery R. Dilip, Issrah Jawad, Sachiyo Yoshida, Pages S3-S5
—Adolescent sexual and reproductive health: The global challenges, by Jessica L. Morris, Hamid Rushwan   Pages S40-S42
—What can obstetrician/gynecologists do to support abortion access? by Alice G. Mark, Merrill Wolf, Alison Edelman, Laura Castleman, Pages S53-S55
—Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion, by Anibal Faúndes, Iqbal H. Shah, Pages S56-S59

NEWS:

Brazil:  Brazil: Feminists take the streets against Cunha and Bill 5069/2013, tightening criminal abortion law.   Article online.

International Campaign for Women’s Right to Safe Abortion issues great e-newsletters monthly, with abstracts of publications for members.   Website online.

[Ireland] “Abortion Pill Bus” on 409-mile tour of Ireland.  newspaper report, another report

[Latin America]  Recently appointed Secretary General of the Organization of American States, Luis Almagro calls for safe, legal abortion in Latin America.  Ipas Press release.

US-focused news, resources, and legal developments are available on Repro Rights Prof Blog. View or subscribe.

JOBS

Advocacy Adviser for Latin America and the Caribbean, Global Legal Program, :The Center for Reproductive Rights | Deadline: Open until filled.  Position will be based in Washington DC
Apply as soon as possible.  Job details.

Summer Legal Internships in California, see “Educational” category above.

Links to other employers in the field of Reproductive and Sexual Health Law are online here

Compiled by the Coordinator of the International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program, reprohealth*law at utoronto.ca For Program publications and resources, see our website, online here.
TO JOIN THIS BLOG: enter your email address in upper right corner of this webpage, then check your email to confirm the subscription.


Kenya High Court upholds criminalisation of adolescent consensual sex, ignores gender bias in the law

June 30, 2015

Many thanks to Godfrey Kangaude, LL.M. (UFS), LL.M. (UCLA), Executive Director of the Malawi Law Society and Co-Director of Nyale Institute for Sexual and Reproductive Health Governance, and Mobby Rusere, an LL.M. candidate in Sexual and Reproductive Rights in the Centre for Human Rights,  Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, for collaborating on this case summary and analysis for Legal Grounds III: Reproductive and Sexual Rights in Sub-Saharan African Courts, forthcoming in 2016.

CKW v. Attorney General & Director of Public Prosecution, Petition No. 6 of 2013 (High Court of Kenya)  Decision online.  Summary and analysis online.    Facts:  The petitioner, who was 16 years old at the material time, was facing a charge before the magistrate’s court for the offence of  defilement, for having had penetrative penile-vaginal sex with a girl of 16, which was contrary to Sections 8(1) and 8(4) of the Sexual Offences Act, 2006 (Sexual Offences Act). This was an application before the High Court of Kenya lodged on behalf of a minor petitioning the court to declare Sections 8 (1) and 11 (1) of the Sexual Offences Act invalid to the extent that they criminalise sexual relationships between consenting adolescents.

Legal Grounds I and II, online here, contain summaries and analyses of 107 decisions from African Commonwealth Courts.  Both were published by the Center for Reproductive Rights in 2005 and 2010.
Newer case summaries drafted for “Legal Grounds III” are online here.   These also include a 2012 decision holding Kenyan police accountable for failure to investigate child sexual assaults and a 2011 Ugandan decision on maternal mortality and the constitutional right to health.


Africa: New book on Strengthening protection of SRH through Human Rights

February 26, 2015

Congratulations to Charles Ngwena and Ebenezer Durojaye, editors of this useful 365-page book available online here!   We are delighted to provide an overview and Table of Contents below.

Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the African region through human rights, ed. Charles Ngwena and Ebenezer Durojaye (Pretoria, South Africa:  Pretoria University Law Press (PULP), 2014) 12 chapters, 365 pages.   Entire book online!

Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the African region through human rights uses rights-based frameworks to address some of the serious sexual and reproductive health challenges that the African region is currently facing. More importantly, the book provides insightful human rights approaches on how these challenges can be overcome. The book is the first of its kind. It is an important addition to the resources available to researchers, academics, policymakers, civil society organisations, human rights defenders, learners and other persons interested in the subject of sexual and reproductive health and rights as they apply to the African region. Human rights issues addressed by the book include: access to safe abortion and emergency obstetric care; HIV/AIDS; adolescent sexual health and rights; early marriage; and gender-based sexual violence.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Foreword by Commissioner Soyata Maiga   (Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Women in Africa) (p. viii)
INTRODUCTION: 
1.  Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the African region through human rights: An introduction
by Charles Ngwena and Ebenezer Durojaye  (page 1)

PART I: REPRODUCTIVE AUTONOMY, ACCESS TO SAFE ABORTION AND EMERGENCY OBSTETRIC CARE:
2.  Reducing abortion-related maternal mortality in Africa:
Progress in implementing Objective 5 of the Maputo Plan of Action on Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights
          by Eunice Brookman-Amissah and Tinyade Kachika    (page 31)
3.  Access to legal abortion for rape as a reproductive health right: A commentary on the abortion
regimes of Swaziland and Ethiopia
           by Simangele Mavundla and Charles Ngwena     (page 61)
4.  Abortion and the European Convention on Human Rights: A lens for abortion advocacy in Africa
           by Christina Zampas and Jaime Todd-Gher     (page 79)
5.  Accountability for non-fulfilment of human rights obligations:
A key strategy for reducing maternal mortality and disability in sub-Saharan Africa
           by Onyema Afulukwe-Eruchalu      (page 119)
PART II: HIV/AIDS FOCUS:
6.  Adolescent girls, HIV, and state obligations under the African Women’s Rights Protocol
           by Karen Stefiszyn  (page 155)
7.  Advancing a feminist capabilities approach to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa
           by Rebecca Amollo (page 181)
8.  The right to health and AIDS medicines in sub-Saharan Africa:
Assessing the outcomes of a human rights-based approach to medicines
           by Lisa Forman  (page 211)

PART III: SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RIGHTS:
INTERSECTIONS WITH ADOLESCENCE, EARLY MARRIAGE, GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE AND POVERTY:
9.  Sexual health and rights of adolescents: A dialogue with sub-Saharan Africa
           by Godfrey Kangaude and Tiffany Banda  (page 251)
10.  Promoting sexual and reproductive rights through legislative interventions:
A case study of child rights legislation and early marriage in Nigeria and Ethiopia
           by Ayodele Atsenuwa (page 279)
11.  Gaps in gender-based violence jurisprudence of international and hybrid criminal courts:
Can human rights law help?
           by Susana Sácouto  (page 305)
12. Women, sexual rights and poverty: Framing the linkage under the African human rights system
           by Fana Hagos Berhane  (page 331)